List of extinct animals of New Zealand

List of extinct animals of New Zealand

This is an incomplete list of extinct animals of New Zealand. This list covers only extinctions from the Holocene epoch.

Mammals

Bats, and a recently discovered extinct mouse-sized creature, are the only land mammals known to have inhabited New Zealand until the arrival of humans. Fossil marine mammals have been found. New Zealand now has two surviving species of endemic bat.

Common NameScientific Name Extinction Date Range Image
Greater Short-tailed Bat

Mystacina robusta

1965 New Zealand

Birds

Extinctions since mid-19th-century European settlement

Common NameScientific Name Extinction Date Range Image
Auckland Islands Merganser

Mergus australis

January 9, 1902 New Zealand (Auckland Islands) Auckland Islands Merganser
Auckland Islands Shore Plover

Thinornis rossi

1840 New Zealand (Auckland Islands) Auckland Islands Shore Plover
Bush Wren

Xenicus longipes

1972 New Zealand Bush Wren
Chatham Bellbird

Anthornis melanocephala

1906 New Zealand (Chatham Islands) Chatham Bellbird
Chatham Fernbird

Bowdleria rufescens

1895 New Zealand (Chatham Islands) Chatham Fernbird
Chatham Islands Penguin

Eudyptes chathamensis

1872? New Zealand (Chatham Islands)
Chatham Islands Rail

Cabalus modestus

1900 New Zealand (Chatham Islands) Chatham Islands Rail
Dieffenbach’s Rail

Gallirallus dieffenbachii

1872 New Zealand (Chatham Islands) Dieffenbach's Rail
Hawkins’s Rail

Diaphorapteryx hawkinsi

late 1800s New Zealand (Chatham Islands)
Huia

Heteralocha acutirostris

December 28, 1907 New Zealand Huia
Laughing Owl

Sceloglaux albifacies

July 5, 1914 New Zealand Laughing Owl
Mysterious Starling

Aplonis mavornata

1774 New Zealand (Cook Islands)
New Zealand Little Bittern

Ixobrychus novaezelandiae

1872 New Zealand New Zealand Little Bittern
New Zealand Quail

Coturnix novaezelandidae

1875 New Zealand New Zealand Quail
North Island Piopio

Turnagra tanagra

1900 New Zealand (North Island) North Island Piopio (front)
North Island Snipe

Coenocorypha barrierensis

1870 New Zealand (North Island) North Island Snipe
North Island Takahē

Porphyrio mantelli

1894? New Zealand (North Island)
South Island Kokako

Callaeas cinerea cinerea

Unknown New Zealand (South Island) The Orange-wattled South Island Kokako
South Island Piopio

Turnagra capensis

1963 New Zealand (South Island) South Island Piopio (rear)
South Island Snipe

Coenocorypha iredalei

1960s New Zealand (South Island)
Stephens Island Wren

Xenicus lyalli

1894 New Zealand Stephens Island Wren

Extinctions since 14th century Māori settlement

Common NameScientific Name Extinction Date Range Image
Adzebill

Aptornis defossor and Aptornis otidiformis

1500s New Zealand Adzebill
Bush Moa

Anomalopteryx didiformis

1400s New Zealand Bush Moa
Chatham Islands Duck

Pachyanas chathamica

1600s New Zealand (Chatham Islands)
Chatham Raven

Corvus moriorum

Unknown New Zealand (Chatham Islands)
Coastal Moa

Euryapteryx curtus

1500s New Zealand Coastal Moa
Crested Moa

Pachyornis australis

1850s New Zealand (South Island)
Eastern Moa

Emeus crassus

1500s New Zealand (South Island) Eastern Moa
Eyles’ Harrier

Circus eylesi

Unknown New Zealand
Finsch’s Duck

Chenonetta finschi

1870? New Zealand
Giant Moa

Dinornis sp.

1500s New Zealand Giant Moa
Haast’s Eagle

Harpagornis moorei

1500s New Zealand (South Island) Haast's Eagle (Upper Left)
Heavy-footed Moa

Pachyornis elephantopus

1500s New Zealand (South Island) Heavy-footed Moa
Hodgen’s Waterhen

Gallinula hodgenorum

1500s New Zealand
Long-billed Wren

Dendroscansor decurvirostris

Unknown New Zealand (South Island)
New Zealand Geese

Cnemiornis calcitrans and Cnemiornis gracilis

1500s New Zealand Cnemiornis calcitrans
New Zealand Raven

Corvus antipodum

1500s New Zealand
New Zealand Musk Duck

Biziura delautouri

1500s New Zealand
New Zealand Owlet-nightjar

Aegotheles novazelandiae

1200s New Zealand
New Zealand Swan

Cygnus atratus sumnerensis

1500s New Zealand (South Island and Chatham Islands)
Scarlett’s Duck

Malacorhynchus scarletti

1500s New Zealand
Scarlett’s Shearwater

Puffinus spelaeus

1200s New Zealand (South Island)
Snipe-rail

Capellirallus karamu

1200s New Zealand (North Island)
Stout-legged Wren

Pachyplichas yaldwyni

1000s New Zealand
Upland Moa

Megalapteryx didinus

1500s New Zealand (South Island) Upland Moa
Waitaha penguin

Megadyptes waitaha

1300s [2] New Zealand

Reptiles

  • Kawekaweau, Hoplodactylus delcourti[3] 1870, New Zealand
  • Narrow-bodied Skink, Oligosoma gracilicorpus[4] 1955, New Zealand (North Island)
  • Northland Skink, Cyclodina northlandi Late Holocene), New Zealand

Amphibians

  • Aurora frog, Leiopelma auroraensis
  • Markham’s frog, Leiopelma markhami
  • Waitomo frog, Leiopelma waitomoensis

Fish

Common NameScientific Name Extinction Date Range Image
New Zealand Grayling

Prototroctes oxyrhynchus[5]

1930s New Zealand New Zealand Grayling

Insects

  • Mecodema punctellum[6] 1931, New Zealand (Stephen Islands)

Molluscs

Placostylus ambagiosus priscus

  • Placostylus ambagiosus gardneri Land snail, Recent
  • Placostylus ambagiosus hinemoa Land snail, Recent
  • Placostylus ambagiosus lesleyae Land snail, Recent
  • Placostylus ambagiosus priscus Land snail, Recent
  • Placostylus ambagiosus spiritus Land snail, Recent
  • Placostylus ambagiosus worthyi Land snail, Recent

References

  1. O’Donnell, C. (2008). “”Mystacina robusta (New Zealand Greater Short-tailed Bat)””. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved December 25, 2013.
  2. Fox, Rebecca (20 November 2008). “Ancient species of penguin found in DNA of bones”. Otago Daily Times. Retrieved 20 November 2008.
  3. World Conservation Monitoring Centre (1996). “”Hoplodactylus delcourti””. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved December 25, 2013.
  4. Australasian Reptile & Amphibian Specialist Group (1996). “”Oligosoma gracilicorpus (Narrow-bodied Skink)””. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved December 25, 2013.
  5. World Conservation Monitoring Centre (1996). “”Prototroctes oxyrhynchus (New Zealand Grayling)””. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2.International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved December 29, 2013.
  6. World Conservation Monitoring Centre (1996). “”Mecodema punctellum””. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved December 26, 2013.
  • Bell, B.D. 1994. A review of the status of New Zealand Leiopelma species (Anura: Leiopelmatidae), including a summary of demographic studies in Coromandel and on Maud Island. New Zealand Journal of Zoology, Vol. 21: 341–349.
  • Bunce, M., Worthy, T.H., Ford, T., Hoppitt, W., Willerslev, E., Drummond A., and Cooper, A. 2003. Extreme reversed sexual size dimorphism in the extinct New Zealand moa Dinornis. Nature, 425:172–175.
  • Cooper, A., Lalueza-Fox, C., Anderson, C., Rambaut, A., Austin, J., and Ward, R. 2001. Complete mitochondrial genome sequences of two extinct moas clarify ratite evolution. Nature 409:704–707.
  • Day, D., 1981, The Doomsday Book of Animals, Ebury Press, London.
  • Gill, B.; Martinson, P., (1991) New Zealand’s Extinct Birds, Random Century New Zealand Ltd.
  • Gill, B. J. 2003. Osteometry and systematics of the extinct New Zealand ravens (Aves: Corvidae: Corvus). Journal of Systematic Palaeontology 1: 43–58.
  • Flannery, T., and Schouten, P., 2001, A Gap in Nature: Discovering the World’s Extinct Animals, William Heinemann, London. ISBN 0-434-00819-2 (UK edition).
  • Fuller, E., 2001, Extinct Birds, Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-253-34034-9 (UK Edition).
  • Holdaway, Richard N., Worthy, Trevor H. and Tennyson, Alan J. D. 2001. A working list of breeding bird species of the New Zealand region at first human contact, New Zealand Journal of Zoology, 28:119–187.
  • Huynen, L., Millar, C.D., Scofield, R.P., and Lambert, D.M. 2003. Nuclear DNA sequences detect species limits in ancient moa. Nature, 425:175–178.
  • Perkins, S. 2003. Three Species No Moa? Fossil DNA analysis yields surprise. Science News, 164:84.
  • Philip R. Millener & T. H. Worthy (1991). “Contribution to New Zealand’s late Quaternary avifauna. II: Dendroscansor decurvirostris, a new genus and species of wren (Aves: Acantisittidae).” Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand. 21, 2: 179–200.
  • Philip R. Millener (1988). “Contributions to New Zealand’s late Quaternary avifauna. I: Pachyplichas, a new genus of wren (Aves: Acanthisittidae), with two new species.” Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand. 18:383–406
  • Wilson, K-J, (2004) Flight of the Huia, Canterbury University Press, Christchurch. ISBN 0-908812-52-3
  • World Conservation Monitoring Centre 1996. Karocolens tuberculatus. In: IUCN 2004. 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 2 March 2006.
  • World Conservation Monitoring Centre 1996. Mecodema punctellum. In: IUCN 2004. 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 2 March 2006.
  • Worthy, T.H. 1998. The Quaternary fossil avifauna of Southland, South Island, New Zealand. Journal of The Royal Society of New Zealand. Volume 28, Number 4, pp 537–589.
  • Worthy, T.H., Holdaway R.N., 2002, The lost world of the Moa: Prehistoric Life of New Zealand, Indiana University Press, Bloomington. ISBN 0-253-34034-9.
  • Worthy, T.H., et al. 2006, Miocene mammal reveals a Mesozoic ghost lineage on insular New Zealand, southwest Pacific. 103 PNAS 19419-19423.
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