List of New Zealand Prime Ministers by term

The following is a list of Prime Ministers of New Zealand ranked by their total term in office (multiple terms are added together to give the total term in office).

List of New Zealand Prime Ministers by term

Rank Name Party Term(s)
1 Richard Seddon † Liberal 13 years, 44 days
2 William Massey † Reform 12 years, 304 days
3 Keith Holyoake National 11 years, 140 days[1]
4 Peter Fraser Labour 9 years, 261 days
5 Helen Clark Labour 8 years, 350 days
6 Edward Stafford None 8 years, 326 days[2]
7 Robert Muldoon National 8 years, 227 days
8 Sidney Holland National 7 years, 281 days
9 Joseph Ward Liberal 7 years, 38 days[3]
10 Jim Bolger National 7 years, 36 days
11 George Forbes United 5 years, 192 days
12 Harry Atkinson None 5 years, 116 days[4]
13 John Key (incumbent) National 5 years, 92 days[5]
14 David Lange Labour 5 years, 13 days
15 William Fox None 4 years, 148 days[6]
16 Michael Joseph Savage † Labour 4 years, 112 days
17 Gordon Coates Reform 3 years, 194 days
18 Robert Stout None 3 years, 47 days[7]
19 Walter Nash Labour 3 years, 0 days
20 Julius Vogel None 2 years, 288 days[8]
21 John Hall None 2 years, 195 days
22 Frederick Whitaker None 2 years, 182 days[9]
23 John Ballance † Liberal 2 years, 93 days
24 Jenny Shipley National 1 year, 362 days
25 George Grey None 1 year, 360 days
26 Norman Kirk † Labour 1 year, 266 days
27 Bill Rowling Labour 1 year, 97 days
28 Alfred Domett None 1 year, 85 days
29 Geoffrey Palmer Labour 1 year, 27 days
30 Frederick Weld None 326 days
31 Jack Marshall National 305 days
32 Daniel Pollen None 224 days
33 George Waterhouse None 143 days
34 Thomas Mackenzie Liberal 104 days
35 Mike Moore Labour 59 days
36 William Hall-Jones Liberal 57 days
37 Francis Bell Reform 16 days
38 Henry Sewell None 13 days

† – Died in office.

Note: Some lists consider Hugh Watt as a New Zealand Prime Minister. Watt served as acting Prime Minister for seven days from 31 August to 6 September 1972 following the death of Norman Kirk. He is not normally counted in the official numbering of New Zealand Prime Ministers.

February 19, 2014 / by / in
List of New Zealand by-elections

By-elections in New Zealand occur to fill vacant seats in the New Zealand Parliament. The death, resignation, or expulsion of a sitting electorate MP can cause a by-election. (Note that list MPs do not have geographic districts for the purpose of provoking by-elections – if a list MP’s seat becomes vacant, the next person on his or her party’s list fills the position.) Historically, by-elections were often caused by general elections being declared void.


Under the Electoral Act 1993, a by-election need not take place if a general election will occur within six months of an electorate seat becoming vacant, although confirmation by a resolution supported by at least 75% of MPs is required. In 1996 the general election date was brought forward slightly, to 12 October, to avoid a by-election after the resignation of Michael Laws. Twice, in 1943 and 1969, by-elections were avoided after the deaths in election years of Paraire Karaka Paikea and Ralph Hanan by passing special acts, the By-election Postponement Act 1943 and theBy-election Postponement Act 1969.

In recent years by-elections have not occurred particularly frequently – only one in the 2002–2005 parliamentary term, and none in the 1999–2002 or 2005–2008 terms. This is because most MPs who retire mid-term (e.g. Labour MPs Jim Sutton and Michael Cullen) were List MPs, so are simply replaced by the next member below them on their party list (unless that person is already an electorate MP, or does not agree). Some MPs have entered Parliament when two or more people above them on the list have declined, sometimes after pressure from their party: in 2008 Dail Jones (New Zealand First) and Russel Norman (Green); and in 2011 Louisa Wall (Labour) after five above her on the list declined.

Historically, however, they have taken place considerably more frequently – the 2nd Parliament of 1856–1860, for example, saw 33 by-elections and four supplementary elections, despite the House of Representatives originally having just 37 seats (increasing to 41 seats during the parliamentary term).

In the past it was not uncommon for an MP who died in office to be replaced with an immediate family member such as a brother, wife (see widow’s succession), or son. This resulted in the election of the first woman MP Elizabeth McCombs (who was in turn succeeded by her son Terry McCombs), the first woman National MP Mary Grigg, and the first woman Māori MP Iriaka Ratana; all of whom took over their husband’s seat. This practice has however fallen out of favour since the mid-seventies with the election of John Kirk to his late father’s seat being the last occasion this happened at a by-election.

Eleven Prime Ministers first came to parliament via by-elections: Julius Vogel, Harry Atkinson, Robert Stout, John Ballance, William Massey, Peter Fraser, Keith Holyoake, Walter Nash, Bill Rowling, David Lange and Geoffrey Palmer. Five Prime Ministers (William Fox, Henry Sewell, Edward Stafford, George Grey and Joseph Ward) have won by-elections later in their parliamentary careers, while Labour leaders Harry Holland and David Shearer were also first elected via a by-election. Some minor party founders have also launched their parties by resigning from a major party and their seat, then contesting it for their new party. Party founders who have done this include Matiu Rata and Tariana Turia. Interestingly, both resigned from Labour to form Māori parties. In 1980 Rata was unsuccessful in retaking his Northern Maori electorate for his newly formed Mana Motuhake party, but in 2004 Turia successfully reclaimed Te Tai Hauauru for the Māori Party. In addition,Winston Peters resigned from National and his parliamentary seat in 1993, retaking the seat as an independent and going on to form the New Zealand First party. In these circumstances, by-elections are seen as a legitimisation of the MP’s rejection of his or her old party. In addition, they provide vital publicity and something of a mandate for the new party.

Pre-party era

By-election and electorate Date Incumbent Reason Winner

1st Parliament (1853–1855)

1854 Town of Nelson 19 June William Travers[1] Resignation Samuel Stephens[2]
1854 Waimea 21 June William Cautley[3] Resignation William Travers[1]
1854 City of Auckland 4 August Thomas Bartley[4] Resignation William Brown[5]

2nd Parliament (1855–1860)

1856 Motueka and Massacre Bay 19 May Charles Parker[6] Resignation Herbert Curtis[7][8]
1856 Christchurch Country[9] 14 October Dingley Brittin[5] Resignation John Ollivier[10]
1856 Grey and Bell 14 October Charles Brown[5] Resignation John Lewthwaite[11]
1856 Town of Christchurch[12] 18 November Henry Sewell[13] Resignation Richard Packer[6]
1856 Hutt 27 November Alfred Ludlam[11] Resignation Samuel Revans[14]
1858 City of Auckland 27 April Logan Campbell[15] Resignation Thomas Forsaith[16]
1858 Pensioner Settlements[17] 29 April Joseph Greenwood[18] Resignation John Symonds[19]
1858 Southern Division 8 May Charles Taylor[20] Resignation Theodore Haultain[21]
1858 Grey and Bell 17 May John Lewthwaite[11] Resignation Charles Brown[5]
1858 Waimea 21 May Charles Elliott[22] Resignation David Monro[23]
1858 Wairau 21 May William Wells[24] Resignation Frederick Weld[24]
1858 Town of Lyttelton 28 May James FitzGerald[25] Resignation Crosbie Ward[26]
1858 Akaroa 31 May John Cuff[7] Resignation William Moorhouse[23]
1858 Dunedin Country 16 June John Cargill[15] Resignation John Taylor[20]
1858[27] Wairarapa and Hawke’s Bay 22 July John Smith[28] Resignation James Ferguson[29]
1858 City of Wellington 27 July Isaac Featherston

William Fitzherbert[25]

Resignations Isaac Featherston

William Rhodes[30]

1858 Wellington Country 29 July Dudley Ward[26] Resignation Alfred Brandon[5]
1858 Hutt 31 July Dillon Bell[4]

Samuel Revans[14]

Resignations Alfred Renall[11]

William Fitzherbert[25]

1859 Town of Dunedin 14 January James Macandrew Resignation James Macandrew[31]

Supplementary election, 1859

Cheviot 18 December[32] Edward Jollie
Marsden 29 November[29] James Farmer
Wairarapa 7 November[3] Charles Carter
Wallace 30 November[4] Dillon Bell
By-election Electorate Date Incumbent Reason Winner

2nd Parliament (continued)

1859 Waimea 26 December William Travers Resignation Fedor Kelling
1860 Town of Christchurch[33][34] 18 January Richard Packer Resignation Henry Sewell
1860 (1st) Suburbs of Auckland 25 January Walter Brodie Resignation Theophilus Heale
1860 Dunedin Country 28 March William Cargill[15] Resignation Thomas Gillies[35]
1860 (1st) Christchurch Country 2 April John Ollivier Resignation Isaac Cookson
1860 City of Auckland 5 April Thomas Beckham Resignation Archibald Clark
1860 (2nd) Suburbs of Auckland 5 April Frederick Merriman Resignation Joseph Hargreaves
1860 Omata 16 April Alfred East Resignation James Richmond
1860 (2nd) Christchurch Country 21 April John Hall Resignation Charles Brown
1860 County of Hawke 26 April James Ferguson Resignation Thomas Fitzgerald
1860 Northern Division[36] 23 May Thomas Henderson Resignation Thomas Henderson
1860 Grey and Bell[37] 28 May Charles Brown Resignation Thomas King
1860 (3rd) Suburbs of Auckland 4 August Joseph Hargreaves Resignation Logan Campbell

3rd Parliament (1861–1865)

1861 Grey and Bell 20 June William King Death Harry Atkinson
1861 Suburbs of Nelson 20 June James Wemyss Resignation William Wells
1861 Napier 1 July Henry Stark Resignation William Colenso
1861 Wanganui 5 July Henry Harrison Resignation Henry Harrison
1862 (1st) City of Dunedin 17 March Thomas Dick Resignation Thomas Dick
1862 Town of New Plymouth 5 May William Richmond Resignation Isaac Watt
1862 (2nd) City of Dunedin 30 May Edward McGlashan[38][39] Resignation John Richardson
1862 Ellesmere 9 June Thomas Rowley Resignation James FitzGerald
1862 Avon 11 June Alfred Creyke Resignation William Thomson
1862 Heathcote 12 June George Hall Resignation William Moorhouse
1862 City of Auckland West 14 June Josiah Firth Resignation James Williamson
1862 (3rd) City of Dunedin 11 November John Richardson Resignation James Paterson
1862 Hampden 4 December Thomas Fraser Absence John Jones

Supplementary election, 1863

Dunedin and Suburbs North 28 March 1863[30] John Richardson
Dunedin and Suburbs South 6 April 1863[30] William Reynolds
Gold Fields 14 April 1863[40] William Baldwin

George Brodie

By-election Electorate Date Incumbent Reason Winner

3rd Parliament (continued)

1863[41] Dunedin and Suburbs South 20 June James Paterson Resignation James Paterson
1863 Hampden 2 July John Jones Resignation Frederick Wayne
1863 Kaiapoi 2 September Isaac Cookson Resignation Robert Wilkin
1863 Dunedin and Suburbs North 3 September Thomas Dick Resignation Julius Vogel
1863 Town of New Plymouth 9 October Isaac Watt Resignation Henry Turton
1863 Heathcote 28 October William Moorhouse Resignation Alfred Cox
1863 Akaroa 30 October Augustus White Resignation Lancelot Walker
1864 Franklin 13 October Marmaduke Nixon Death (KIA) Theodore Haultain
1864 Town of New Plymouth 18 November Henry Turton Resignation Charles Brown
1864 Waimea 29 November Alfred Saunders Resignation John Miles
1865 (1st) Bruce 8 April Thomas Gillies Resignation Arthur Burns
1865 Raglan 19 April Charles Taylor Resignation William Buckland
1865 Parnell 20 April Reader Wood Resignation Robert Creighton
1865 Town of New Plymouth 19 May Charles Brown Resignation Henry Sewell
1865 Gold Fields 29 May William Baldwin Resignation Charles Haughton
1865 Rangitiki 10 July William Fox Resignation Robert Pharazyn
1865 Omata 18 July James Richmond Appointed to Legislative Council Francis Gledhill
1865 (2nd) Bruce 26 July Edward Cargill Resignation James Macandrew
1865 Wairarapa 29 July Charles Carter Resignation Henry Bunny

4th Parliament (1866–1870)

1866 Mount Herbert 27 July William Moorhouse Chose to represent Westland Thomas Potts
1866 Port Chalmers 15 December Thomas Dick Resignation Thomas Dick
1867 City of Dunedin 19 January William Reynolds Resignation William Reynolds
1867 City of Christchurch 13 February James FitzGerald Resignation William Travers
1867 Avon 11 March Crosbie Ward Resignation William Reeves
1867 Manuherikia 27 April William Baldwin Resignation David Mervyn
1867 Wanganui 27 April John Bryce Resignation Henry Harrison
1867 Town of New Plymouth 29 April John Richardson Resignation Harry Atkinson
1867 City of Auckland West 24 May James Williamson Resignation Patrick Dignan
1867 Raglan 4 June Joseph Newman Resignation James Farmer
1867 Parnell 5 June Frederick Whitaker Resignation Charles Heaphy
1867 Port Chalmers 15 June Thomas Dick Resignation David Main
1867 Waimea 28 June Arthur Oliver Resignation Edward Baigent
1867 Lyttelton 1 July Edward Hargreaves Resignation George Macfarlan
1867 Kaiapoi 5 July Joseph Beswick Resignation John Studholme
1867 Picton 25 July Arthur Beauchamp Resignation William Adams
1867 Pensioner Settlements 5 August Paul de Quincey Resignation John Kerr
1867 Ashley 7 August Lancelot Walker Resignation Henry Tancred
1868 Collingwood 18 March Andrew Richmond Resignation Arthur Collins
1868 Westland Boroughs 3 April William Moorhouse Resignation William Harrison

Supplementary election, 1868

Westland North 9 April 1868[35] Timothy Gallagher
Westland South 6 April 1868[42] Edmund Barff

First Māori elections

Eastern Maori 15 April 1868[23] Tareha Te Moananui
Northern Maori 15 April 1868[43] Frederick Russell
Southern Maori 20 June 1868[44] John Patterson
Western Maori 1 May 1868[6] Mete Paetahi
By-election Electorate Date Incumbent Reason Winner

4th Parliament (continued)

1868 Avon 8 June William Reeves Resignation William Rolleston
1868 Picton 11 June William Adams Resignation Courtney Kenny
1868 Rangitiki 22 June William Watt Resignation William Fox
1868 Franklin 2 July Robert Graham Resignation William Swan
1868 Waikouaiti 27 July William Murison Resignation Robert Mitchell
1868 Lyttelton[45] 2 November George Macfarlan Death John Peacock
1868 Timaru 20 November Alfred Cox Resignation Edward Stafford
1868 City of Nelson 24 December Edward Stafford Resignation Nathaniel Edwards
1869 Marsden 25 January[46] Francis Hull Resignation John Munro
1869 Roslyn 12 February George Hepburn Resignation Henry Driver
1869 City of Dunedin 5 March James Paterson Resignation Thomas Birch
1869 Newton 19 March George Graham Resignation Robert Creighton
1869 Waikouaiti 27 April Robert Mitchell Resignation Francis Rich
1869 Town of New Plymouth 28 April Harry Atkinson Resignation Thomas Kelly
1869 (1st) Wallace 30 April Alexander McNeil Resignation Cuthbert Cowan
1869 Oamaru 25 May Robert Campbell Resignation Charles Graham
1869 Taieri 19 June Donald Reid Resignation Henry Howorth
1869 (2nd) Wallace 17 September Cuthbert Cowan Resignation George Webster
1870 Bruce 21 March John Cargill Resignation James Brown
1870 Mongonui 30 March Thomas Ball Resignation Thomas Gillies
1870 Caversham 25 April Arthur John Burns Resignation James McIndoe
1870 Parnell 12 May Charles Heaphy Resignation Reader Wood
1870 Riverton 18 May Donald Hankinson Resignation Lauchlan McGillivray
1870 City of Christchurch 12 August William Travers Resignation William Moorhouse

5th Parliament (1871–1875)

1871 City of Auckland West 1 September John Williamson Election Invalid[47] John Williamson
1871 Roslyn 12 September Henry Driver Resignation Edward McGlashan
1872 Wairau 19 February William Henry Eyes Resignation Arthur Seymour
1872 Waikato 1 March James McPherson Resignation William Jackson
1872 Wakatipu 13 March Charles Edward Haughton Resignation Bendix Hallenstein
1872 Rodney 16 March Henry Farnall Resignation John Sheehan
1872 City of Nelson 27 May Martin Lightband Resignation David Luckie
1872 Waikouaiti 12 June George McLean Resignation David Monro
1872 Coleridge[48] 23 July John Karslake Resignation William Bluett
1872 Heathcote[49] 30 July John Hall Resignation John Wilson
1872 Caversham 28 August Richard Cantrell Resignation William Tolmie
1872 Egmont 3 October William Gisborne Resignation Harry Atkinson
1873 Suburbs of Nelson 14 May Ralph Richardson Resignation Andrew Richmond
1873 Lyttelton[50] 19 May John Peacock Resignation Henry Webb
1873 Invercargill 22 May William Henderson Calder Resignation John Cuthbertson
1873 Waikouaiti 23 July David Monro Resignation John Lillie Gillies
1873 Mongonui and

Bay of Islands

24 July John McLeod Resignation John Williams
1873 Wakatipu 19 August Bendix Hallenstein Resignation Vincent Pyke
1873 Collingwood 9 December Arthur Collins Resignation William Gibbs
1874 Franklin 9 April Archibald Clark Resignation Joseph May
1874 (1st) Akaroa 20 April Robert Rhodes Resignation William Montgomery[51]
1874 City of Dunedin 23 April John Bathgate Resignation Nathaniel Wales
1874 Waitemata 3 August Thomas Henderson Resignation Gustav von der Heyde
1874 (2nd) Akaroa[52] 10 August William Montgomery Election invalid[53] William Montgomery
1874 Waitemata 16 September Gustav von der Heyde unseated on petition Gustav von der Heyde
1875 Kaiapoi 22 January John Studholme Resignation Charles Bowen
1875 (1st) City of Auckland West[54] 27 March Thomas Gillies Appointed to

Supreme Court

George Grey
1875 (2nd) City of Auckland West 14 April John Williamson Death Patrick Dignan
1875 Rangitikei 24 April William Fox Resignation John Ballance
1875 Waikouaiti 3 May John Lillie Gillies Resignation George McLean
1875 Wairau 21 June Arthur Seymour Resignation Joseph Ward
1875 Wallace 6 August George Webster Death Christopher Basstian
1875 Caversham 20 August William Tolmie Death Robert Stout

6th Parliament (1876–1879)

1876 City of Auckland West[55] 25 July George Grey Resignation Benjamin Tonks
1876 Wanganui 27 September Julius Vogel Resignation William Fox
1877 Napier 15 February Donald McLean Death Fred Sutton
1877 City of Wellington 27 March Edward Pearce Resignation William Travers
1877 Totara 30 April George Henry Tribe Death William Gisborne
1877 City of Auckland West 2 May Benjamin Tonks Resignation James Wallis
1877 Wairarapa 3 July John Andrew Resignation George Beetham
1878 City of Wellington 18 February William Travers Resignation George Elliott Barton
1878 Parnell 20 February Reader Wood Resignation Frederick Moss
1878 Timaru 8 April Edward Stafford Resignation Richard Turnbull
1878 Port Chalmers 12 April William Hunter Reynolds Resignation James Green
1878 Franklin 20 May Hugh Lusk Resignation Richard Hobbs
1878 Cheviot 21 May Leonard Harper Resignation Alfred Saunders
1878 Grey Valley 22 May Martin Kennedy Resignation Richard Reeves
1878 Hokitika 26 June Charles Button Resignation Seymour Thorne George
1878 City of Dunedin 3 July William Larnach Resignation Richard Oliver
1878 Taieri 11 July Donald Reid Resignation William Cutten
1878 Invercargill 17 July George Lumsden Resignation Henry Feldwick
1878 Waipa 24 July Alfred Cox Resignation Edward Graham McMinn
1878 Roslyn 29 July Arthur John Burns Resignation Henry Driver
1879 Gladstone 3 January Frederick Teschemaker Death John Studholme
1879 Mataura 15 January William Wood Resignation James Shanks
1879 City of Nelson 6 February John Sharp Resignation Acton Adams
1879 City of Auckland West 4 March Patrick Dignan Resignation David Goldie
1879 Coleridge[56] 8 May Cathcart Wason Resignation George Hart
1879 Hutt 2 July William Fitzherbert Resignation Henry Jackson
1879 Eastern Maori 7 July Karaitiana Takamoana Death Henare Tomoana
1879 Southern Maori 7 July Hori Kerei Taiaroa Resignation Ihaia Tainui
1879 City of Dunedin 15 July Robert Stout Resignation William Downie Stewart

7th Parliament (1879–1881)

1880 Rangitikei 8 May William Jarvis Willis Resignation William Fox
1880 Waitaki 16 June Thomas William Hislop Resignation George Jones
1880 Waikaia 21 September George Ireland Death Horace Bastings
1881 Suburbs of Nelson 11 January Andrew Richmond Death Arthur Collins
1881 Southern Maori 1 March Ihaia Tainui Resignation Hori Kerei Taiaroa
1881 City of Nelson 7 June Acton Adams Resignation Henry Levestam
1881 Grey Valley 16 June Edward Masters Resignation Thomas Shailer Weston

8th Parliament (1882–1884)

1882 Franklin North 9 June Benjamin Harris Election declared void Benjamin Harris
1882 Wakanui 16 June Cathcart Wason Election declared void Joseph Ivess
1882 Stanmore[57] 11 July Walter Pilliet Election declared void Walter Pilliet
1883 Peninsula 22 January[58] James Seaton Death William Larnach
1883 Selwyn 6 April John Hall Resignation Edward James Lee
1883 Inangahua 14 May Thomas Shailer Weston Resignation Edward Shaw
1883 Bruce 29 June James Rutherford Death James McDonald
1884 Selwyn 15 February Edward James Lee Death Edward Wakefield
1884 Thorndon 13 May William Levin Resignation Alfred Newman
1884 Kaiapoi 16 May Isaac Wilson Resignation Edward Richardson
1884 East Coast 16 June Allan MacDonald Resignation Samuel Locke

9th Parliament (1884–1887)

1885 Oamaru 20 May Samuel Edward Shrimski Resignation Thomas William Hislop
1885 (1st) Tauranga 22 May George Morris Resignation John Sheehan
1885 Waimea 3 June Joseph Shephard Resignation John Kerr
1885 Southern Maori 10 June Hori Kerei Taiaroa Resignation Tame Parata
1885 Wakanui 6 July John Grigg Resignation Joseph Ivess
1885 (2nd) Tauranga 11 July John Sheehan Death Lawrence Grace
1885 Bruce 5 August Robert Gillies Resignation Donald Reid
1886 Sydenham 12 May William White Resignation Richard Taylor
1886 Dunedin Central 19 October James Bradshaw Death Thomas Bracken
1886 Waitemata 11 December William Hurst Death Richard Monk
1886 Western Maori 23 December Te Puke Te Ao Death Hoani Taipua
1887 Heathcote[59] 8 February John Coster Death Frederic Jones
1887 Port Chalmers 6 April James Macandrew Death James Mills
1887 Te Aro 15 April Charles Johnston Resignation Francis Fraser
1887 Northern Maori 9 May Ihaka Hakuene Death Wi Katene
1887 Avon[60] 1 June Leonard Harper Resignation Edwin Blake

10th Parliament (1887–1890)

1888 Ashley 25 September William Pearson Death John Verrall
1889 Lincoln 16 January Arthur O’Callaghan Resignation Alfred Saunders
1889 City of Nelson 3 April Henry Levestam Death Joseph Harkness
1889 Christchurch North[61] 19 June Julius Vogel Resignation Edward Humphreys
1889 Oamaru 30 September Thomas William Hislop Resignation Thomas William Hislop
1889 Waipa 21 November William Jackson Death John Bryce
1889 East Coast 13 December Andrew Graham Resignation Alexander Creighton Arthur
1890 Timaru 18 August Richard Turnbull Death William Hall-Jones

Liberal Party era


Liberal     Independent     New Liberal

Electorate and by-election Date Incumbent Cause Winner

11th Parliament (1891–1893)

Northern Maori 1891 7 February Hirini Taiwhanga Death[62][63] Eparaima Te Mutu Kapa
Egmont 1891 17 February Harry Atkinson[64] Appointed to Legislative Council Felix McGuire[65]
Newton 1891 31 March David Goldie Resignation George Grey
Te Aroha 1891 9 July William Allen Disallowed on petition William Fraser
Waikato 1891 6 October John Bryce Resignation Edward Lake
City of Christchurch 1891 9 October Westby Perceval Appointed Agent General Ebenezer Sandford
City of Wellington 1892 15 January Kennedy Macdonald Resignation William McLean
Bruce 1892 4 May James Thomson Resignation James Allen
Rangitikei 1892 8 July Douglas Macarthur Death Robert Bruce
Inangahua 1893 8 June Richard Reeves Bankruptcy Robert Stout
Wanganui 1893 9 June John Ballance Death Archibald Willis
Thames 1893 26 July Alfred Cadman Resignation James McGowan
City of Auckland 1893 4 August William Rees Resignation Alfred Cadman

12th Parliament (1894–1896)

Waitemata 1894 9 April Richard Monk Election declared invalid William Massey
Tuapeka 1894 9 July Vincent Pyke Death William Larnach
City of Auckland 1895 24 July George Grey Resignation Thomas Thompson
City of Christchurch 1896 13 February William Reeves Appointed Agent-General Charles Lewis

13th Parliament (1897–1899)

Suburbs of Wellington 1897 23 April Thomas Wilford Election declared void Charles Wilson
Awarua 1897 5 August Joseph Ward Bankruptcy Joseph Ward
City of Dunedin 1897 13 October Henry Fish Death Alexander Sligo
City of Wellington 1898[66] 9 March Robert Stout Resignation John Duthie
Mataura 1898 26 May George Richardson Bankruptcy Robert McNab
Tuapeka 1898 2 November William Larnach Death Charles Rawlins
City of Wellington 1899 25 July John Hutcheson Resignation John Hutcheson

14th Parliament (1900–1902)

Otaki 1900 6 January Henry Augustus Field[29] Death William Hughes Field[29]
City of Auckland 1900 27 April William Crowther[7] Death Joseph Witheford[67]
Waihemo 1900 18 July John McKenzie[68] Resignation Thomas Mackenzie[68]
Northern Maori 1901 9 January Hone Heke Ngapua Bankruptcy Hone Heke Ngapua
City of Christchurch 1901 18 July Charles Lewis Resignation George Smith
Patea 1901 (1st) 18 July George Hutchison Resignation Frederick Haselden
Patea 1901 (2nd) 6 November Frederick Haselden Election voided on petition[69] Frederick Haselden
Caversham 1901 19 December Arthur Morrison Death Thomas Sidey

15th Parliament (1903–1905)

Pahiatua 1904 28 July John O’Meara Death William Hawkins
City of Wellington 1905 6 April George Fisher Death Francis Fisher

16th Parliament (1906–1908)

Westland 1906 13 July Richard Seddon Death Tom Seddon
Manukau 1906 6 December Matthew Kirkbride[70] Death Frederic Lang[71]
Taranaki 1907 4 May Edward Metcalf Smith[28] Death Henry Okey[10]
Tuapeka 1908 5 June James Bennet Death William Chapple

17th Parliament (1909–1911)

Thames 1909 4 February James McGowan Appointed to Legislative Council Edmund Taylor
Northern Maori 1909 20 March Hone Heke Ngapua Death Te Rangi Hīroa
Rangitikei 1909 16 September Arthur Remington Death Robert Smith
Auckland East 1910 16 June Frederick Baume Death Arthur Myers
Christchurch North 1911 17 August Tommy Taylor Death Leonard Isitt

Multi-party era


  Liberal   Reform   Social Democrat   Independent
  Labour   Country Party   United   Ratana
Electorate and by-election Date Incumbent Cause Winner

18th Parliament (1912–1914)

Egmont 1912 17 September Thomas Mackenzie Resignation Charles Wilkinson
Grey 1913[72] 17 & 24 July Arthur Guinness Death Paddy Webb
Lyttelton 1913[73] 9 & 16 December George Laurenson Death James McCombs

19th Parliament (1915–1919)

Dunedin Central 1915 3 February Charles Statham Resignation Charles Statham
Bay of Islands 1915 8 June Vernon Reed Election declared void[74] William Stewart
Taumarunui 1915 15 June William Jennings Election declared void[75] William Jennings
Pahiatua 1916 17 August James Escott Death Harold Smith
Hawke’s Bay 1917 8 March Robert McNab Death John Findlay
Bay of Islands 1917 17 March William Stewart Resignation Vernon Reed
Grey 1917 24 November Paddy Webb Resignation Paddy Webb
Wellington North 1918 12 February Alexander Herdman Resignation John Luke
Southern Maori 1918 21 February Taare Parata Death Hopere Uru
Grey 1918 29 May Paddy Webb Imprisonment Harry Holland
Wellington Central 1918 3 October Robert Fletcher Death Peter Fraser
Taranaki 1918 10 October Henry Okey Death Sydney Smith
Palmerston 1918 19 December David Buick Death Jimmy Nash
Wellington South 1918 19 December Alfred Hindmarsh Death Bob Semple

20th Parliament (1920–1922)

Bruce 1920 14 April James Allen Resignation John Edie
Stratford 1920 6 May Robert Masters Election declared void Robert Masters
Bay of Plenty 1920 30 September William MacDonald Death Kenneth Williams
Patea 1921 13 April Walter Powdrell Death Edwin Dixon
Auckland East 1921 2 November Arthur Myers Resignation Clutha Mackenzie
Southern Maori 1922 25 January Hopere Uru Death Henare Uru
Dunedin North 1922 21 June Edward Kellett Death James Munro

21st Parliament (1923–1925)

Tauranga 1923 28 March William Herries Death Charles MacMillan
Oamaru 1923 1 May John MacPherson Election declared void[76] John Macpherson
Franklin 1925 17 June William Massey Death Ewen McLennan

22nd Parliament (1926–1928)

Eden 1926 15 April[77] James Parr Appointed High Commissioner, UK Rex Mason
Raglan 1927 30 September[77] Richard Bollard Death Lee Martin

23rd Parliament (1929–1931)

Bay of Islands 1929 10 April[78] Harold Rushworth Election declared void Harold Rushworth
Hutt 1929 18 December[46] Thomas Wilford Resignation Walter Nash
Parnell 1930 7 May[22] Harry Jenkins Resignation Bill Endean
Invercargill 1930 13 August[26] Joseph Ward Death Vincent Ward
Waipawa 1930 8 October[32] George Hunter Death Albert Jull
Western Maori 1930 8 October[1] Maui Pomare Death Taite Te Tomo
Hauraki 1931 27 May[77] Arthur Hall Death Walter Massey

24th Parliament (1932–1935)

Southern Maori 1932 3 August[1] Tuiti Makitanara Death Eruera Tirikatene
Motueka 1932 1 December[79] George Black Death Keith Holyoake
Lyttelton 1933 13 September[31] James McCombs Death Elizabeth McCombs
Buller 1933 22 November[26] Harry Holland Death Paddy Webb
Lyttelton 1935 24 July[31] Elizabeth McCombs Death Terry McCombs

25th Parliament (1936–1938)

Manukau 1936 30 September[1] Bill Jordan Resignation Arthur Osborne

Two-party era


Labour     National     Independent     Social Credit

Electorate and by-election Date Incumbent Cause Winner

26th Parliament (1939–1943)

Christchurch South 1939 3 June Ted Howard Death Robert Macfarlane
Auckland West 1940 18 May Michael Joseph Savage Death Peter Carr
Waipawa 1940 16 November Albert Jull Death Cyril Harker
Waitemata 1941 19 July William Lyon Death Mary Dreaver
Bay of Plenty 1941 13 December Gordon Hultquist Death Bill Sullivan
Mid-Canterbury 1942 27 January Arthur Grigg Death Mary Grigg
Hauraki 1942 7 February John Allen Death Andrew Sutherland
Temuka 1942 7 February Thomas Burnett Death Jack Acland
Christchurch East 1943 6 February Tim Armstrong Death Mabel Howard
Northern Maori 1943 19 June Paraire Karaka Paikea Death (by-election postponed by legislation)[80]

27th Parliament (1943–1946)

Awarua 1944 28 October James Hargest Death George Herron
Western Maori 1945 10 February Haami Ratana Death Matiu Ratana
Hamilton 1945 26 May Frank Findlay Death Hilda Ross
Dunedin North 1945 21 July James Munro Death Robert Walls
Raglan 1946 5 March Robert Coulter Death Hallyburton Johnstone

28th Parliament (1946–1949)

Avon 1947 28 May Dan Sullivan Death Jock Mathison
Mount Albert 1947 24 September Arthur Richards Death Warren Freer
Westland 1947 3 December James O’Brien Death James Kent

29th Parliament (1950–1951)

Brooklyn 1951 17 February Peter Fraser Death Arnold Nordmeyer

30th Parliament (1951–1954)

Dunedin North 1953 12 December Robert Walls Death Ethel McMillan
Onehunga 1953 19 December Arthur Osborne Death Hugh Watt
Onslow 1954 7 July Harry Combs Death Henry May
Patea 1954 31 July William Sheat Resignation William Sheat

31st Parliament (1955–1957)

Riccarton 1956 27 October Angus McLagan Death Mick Connelly
Bay of Plenty 1957 6 April Bill Sullivan Resignation Percy Allen

32nd Parliament (1958–1960)

Hamilton 1959 2 May Hilda Ross Death Lance Adams-Schneider

33rd Parliament (1961–1963)

Hurunui 1961 10 June William Gillespie Death Herbert Pickering
Waitaki 1962 10 March Thomas Hayman Death Allan Dick
Buller 1962 7 July Jerry Skinner Death Bill Rowling
Timaru 1962 21 July Clyde Carr Resignation Basil Arthur
Otahuhu 1963 16 March James Deas Death Bob Tizard
Northern Maori 1963 16 March Tapihana Paikea Death Matiu Rata
Grey Lynn 1963 18 May Fred Hackett Death Reginald Keeling

34th Parliament (1964–1966)

There were no by-elections during the term of the 34th Parliament.[81]

35th Parliament (1967–1969)

Southern Maori 1967 11 March Eruera Tirikatene Death Whetu Tirikatene-Sullivan
Fendalton 1967 15 April Harry Lake Death Eric Holland
Petone 1967 15 April Michael Moohan Death Fraser Colman
Eastern Maori 1967 12 August Puti Tipene Watene Death Paraone Reweti
Palmerston North 1967 2 December Bill Brown Death Joe Walding
Hutt 1968 3 August Walter Nash Death Trevor Young

36th Parliament (1970–1972)

Marlborough 1970 21 February Tom Shand Death Ian Brooks

37th Parliament (1973–1975)

Sydenham 1974 2 November Norman Kirk Death John Kirk

38th Parliament (1976–1978)

Nelson 1976 28 February Stanley Whitehead Death Mel Courtney
Mangere 1977 26 March Colin Moyle Resignation David Lange
Pahiatua 1977 30 April Keith Holyoake Appointed as Governor-General John Falloon
Rangitikei 1978 18 February Roy Jack Death Bruce Beetham

39th Parliament (1979–1981)

Christchurch Central 1979 18 August Bruce Barclay Death Geoffrey Palmer
Northern Maori 1980 7 June Matiu Rata Resignation Bruce Gregory
Onehunga 1980 7 June Frank Rogers Death Fred Gerbic
East Coast Bays 1980 6 September Frank Gill Appointed as Ambassador to US Gary Knapp

40th Parliament (1982–1984)

There were no by-elections during the term of the 40th Parliament.[81]

41st Parliament (1984–1987)

Timaru 1985 15 June Basil Arthur Death Maurice McTigue

42nd Parliament (1987–1990)

There were no by-elections during the term of the 40th Parliament.

43rd Parliament (1990–1993)

Tamaki 1992 15 February Robert Muldoon Resignation Clem Simich
Wellington Central 1992 12 December Fran Wilde Election as Mayor of Wellington Chris Laidlaw
Tauranga 1993 17 April Winston Peters Resignation Winston Peters

44th Parliament (1994–1996)

Selwyn 1994 13 August Ruth Richardson Resignation David Carter

MMP era


National     Labour     Māori     Independent     Mana

Electorate and by-election Date Incumbent Cause Winner

45th Parliament (1997–1999)

Taranaki-King Country 1998 2 May Jim Bolger Resignation Shane Ardern

46th Parliament (2000–2002)

There were no by-elections during the term of the 46th Parliament.

47th Parliament (2003–2005)

Te Tai Hauauru 2004 10 July Tariana Turia Resignation Tariana Turia

48th Parliament (2006–2008)

There were no by-elections during the term of the 48th Parliament.

49th Parliament (2009–2011)

Mount Albert 2009 13 June Helen Clark Resignation David Shearer
Mana 2010 20 November Winnie Laban Resignation Kris Faafoi
Botany 2011 5 March Pansy Wong Resignation Jami-Lee Ross
Te Tai Tokerau 2011 25 June Hone Harawira Resignation Hone Harawira

50th Parliament (2011 – present)

Ikaroa-Rāwhiti 2013 29 June[82] Parekura Horomia Death[83] Meka Whaitiri
Christchurch East 2013 30 November Lianne Dalziel Resignation[84] Poto Williams


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February 17, 2014 / by / in
List of political parties in New Zealand

New Zealand national politics feature a pervasive party system. Usually, all members of Parliament’s unicameral House of Representatives belong to a political party. Independent MPs occur relatively rarely. While two primary parties do indeed dominate the political landscape, the country now more closely resembles a multi-party state, where smaller groups can reasonably expect to play a role in government. As of August 2011, eight parties have representatives in Parliament.


Political parties in New Zealand evolved towards the end of the nineteenth century out of interest groups and personal cliques. Most historians regard the Liberal Party, which began its rule in 1891, as the first real party in New Zealand politics. During the long period of Liberal Party control the party’s more conservative opponents founded the Reform Party, forming the original duopoly in the New Zealand parliament.

Gradually, Liberal and Reform found themselves working together more often, mostly in opposition to the growing Labour Party. After Labour eventually won office in 1935, the Liberals and Reform came together to form the National Party. Labour and National currently exist as the two main parties of New Zealand politics.

Over the years, a number of “third parties” or so-called “minor parties” developed, notably the Social Credit Party, the New Zealand Party, the Values Party, and the Alliance. However, the “first past the post” electoral system meant that regardless of how many votes a party gained nation-wide, it could not win a seat without a plurality in a particular electorate (voting district). Under such conditions, these parties mostly performed poorly in terms of making an impact in Parliament.

With the introduction of the Mixed Member Proportional (MMP) electoral system for the 1996 elections, however, it became much easier for smaller parties to enter parliament; but more difficult to gain election as a non-party independent. Since the change to MMP, about one third of the seats in Parliament have been held by MPs representing parties other than Labour and National. In the years before MMP, by contrast, there were sometimes no such MPs at all.

Registration of parties

Political parties in New Zealand can be either registered or unregistered. Registered parties must have five-hundred paying members, each eligible to vote in general elections.

If a party registers, it may submit a party list, enabling it to receive party votes in New Zealand’s MMP electoral system. Unregistered parties can only nominate candidates for individual electorates.

Registered political parties are also able to spend up to $1 million during the campaign for the party vote. All political parties are able to spend $20,000 per electorate seat.

Parties currently in the New Zealand House of Representatives

The order in which political parties appear in this list corresponds to the number of MPs they currently have. Note that political parties within the House declare their existence to theSpeaker, and do not need to be registered outside of the House.

Party Leader(s) Description Seats
National Party John Key A centre-right, socially conservative party with some more liberal elements: e.g., support of same-sex marriage. The largest party in Parliament, it has traditionally been Labour’s main opponent. It supports a mixed economymarket, lower taxation, and less legislative interference. 59
Labour Party David Cunliffe A centre-left, socially progressive party. It is the oldest party in New Zealand and has been traditionally National’s main opponent. It is currently the second largest party in Parliament. 34
Green Party Metiria Turei and

Russel Norman

A Green party with strong left-wing environmentalist influences. It also promotes highly progressive social policies. 14
New Zealand First Winston Peters A centrist, populist, and nationalist party. Its primary goals are reducing immigration, reducing Treaty of Waitangipayments, increasing sentences for crime, and buying back former state assets. 8
Māori Party Tariana Turia and

Pita Sharples

A party based around New Zealand’s indigenous Māori minority. It crystallised in 2004 around Tariana Turia, a former minister of the Labour Party. It promotes what it sees as the rights and interests of Māori. 3
ACT John Banks A classically liberal party that promotes free market economics, low taxation, reduced government expenditure, and increased punishments for crime. It sees itself as promoting accountability and transparency in government. 1
Mana Party Hone Harawira A party based around New Zealand’s indigenous Māori minority that primarily supports Māori Nationalist and Socialist policies. 1
United Future Peter Dunne A moderately centrist party formerly with a strong Christian background: it describes itself as based around “common sense”. It has a particular focus on policies concerning the family and social issues. 1

Registered parties outside of Parliament

Parties listed in alphabetical order:

Party Leader Description
Alliance Victor Billot andKay Murray A left-wing party supporting the welfare state, free education, environmental protection, and Māori interests. The Progressive Party (see below) formed as a splinter group from the Alliance when Jim Anderton, former Alliance leader, left.
Conservative Party of New Zealand Colin Craig A socially conservative party advocating stricter law and order policies, repealing of the ETS and binding referenda.
Focus NZ Joe Carr and Ken Rintoul A party aimed at representing rural New Zealand.
NZ Democrats Stephnie de Ruyter A party based around the idea of Social Credit. The party formerly formed part of the Alliance (see above); previously, as the Social Credit Party, was one of the older surviving parties in New Zealand.
Legalise Cannabis Party Michael Appleby A party which (as its name suggests) supports the legalisation of cannabis. This remains the core of its platform, although it also comments on other issues that it considers related.

Unregistered parties

Parties listed in alphabetical order:

Party Leader Description
1Law4All Party A party aimed at overturning the Treaty of Waitangi
Aotearoa NZ Youth Party Robert Terry
Communist League Unknown A communist party aligned with the Pathfinder tendency. The party was originally called the Socialist Action League, but changed its name when it rejected Trotskyism and adopted a pro-Cuba stance. The party stands a small number of candidates in general elections.
Hapu Party David Rankin A Māori-based party established to challenge the Māori Party.
Human Rights Party Unknown, founded by Anthony Ravlich. A small party focused on human rights and social justice.
Internet Party Kim Dotcom
Join Australia Movement Party Robin Caithness A party advocating union with Australia.
Libertarianz Richard McGrath A libertarian party dedicated to laissez-faire capitalism and keeping government as small as possible.
New Economics Party Deirdre Kent and Phil Stevens A party advocating reform of the banking and currency system.
Nga Iwi Morehu Movement Unknown A small Maori-based party which has been active in a number of elections
OurNZ Party Kelvyn Alp and Rangitunoa Black A party advocating a new currency, binding referenda, and a written constitution.[1]
Pakeha Party David Ruck A party opposing Māori separatism.
Pirate Party of New Zealand Kirk Twist An copyright reform party based on the Swedish Pirate Party, with a focus on other technologcial issues, like net neutrality
Sovereignty Party Tony Corbett Unknown. Has applied for broadcasting allocation for the 2011 election
Thrive New Zealand David Ding Party logo registered in August 2013. Advocating Direct Democracy via an online tool called RealVoice
Workers Party Rebecca Broad Formerly known as the Anti-Capitalist Alliance. A coalition of socialists and anti-globalisation activists.

Historical parties

Parties which held seats

Party Existed In Parliament Description
Christian Democrats 1995–1998 1995–1996 A Christian party established by sitting National MP Graeme Lee. After briefly establishing the Christian Coalition (see above) with the Christian Heritage Party, the Christian Democrats secularised themselves, adopting the name “Future New Zealand”. Future New Zealand merged with United (see below) to form United Future New Zealand.
Christian Heritage NZ 1990–2006 1999 A party based around Christian conservative values. It supported policies to strengthen marriage and opposed abortion and same-sex unions.
Country Party ? – ? 1928–1938 A party established by members of the Farmers’ Union to promote the interests of the rural sector. It reflected to an extent social credit monetary theory, and believed that farmers were not treated fairly by banks and the corporate world.
Democratic Labour Party 1940–1943 1940–1943 A splinter from the Labour Party led by dissident MP John A. Lee. Lee, a socialist and social creditist, believed that the Labour Party had moved too far from its left-wing roots. The Labour Party hierarchy had expelled him after he repeatedly criticised its leadership.
Future New Zealand 1994–1995 1994–1995 A short-lived party established by Peter Dunne after he left the Labour Party. It integrated into the United New Zealand party. Not to be confused with a later party of the same name.
Independent Political Labour League 1905–1910 1908–1910 A small and short-lived left-wing party. It was the second organised party to win a seat in Parliament, withDavid McLaren winning the seat of Wellington East. In Parliament, the IPLL co-operated with the governingLiberal Party.
Labour Party (original) 1910–1912 1910–1912 A short-lived successor to the Independent Political Labour League. It functioned as one of the more moderate workers’ parties, opposing more radical groups like the Socialist Party. It should not be confused with themodern Labour Party, although a certain degree of continuity links the two.
Liberal Party 1891–1927 1891–1927 New Zealand’s first real political party. It provided the country with a number of prominent Prime Ministers, including John Ballance and Richard Seddon. With much of its traditional support undercut by the growingLabour Party, the remnants of the Liberals (known as the United Party) eventually merged with the Reform Party to form the modern National Party.
Liberal Party 1992 – 1996? 1992 A short-lived splinter from the National Party, formed by Hamish McIntyre and Gilbert Myles, two dissident National MPs who disagreed with the economic policies of Ruth Richardson. The Liberal Party quickly joined the Alliance, which the two saw as the principal opponent of Richardson and her ideological allies.
Mana Wahine Te Ira Tangata 1998–2001 1998–1999 A short-lived Māori feminist party established by Alliance (Mana Motuhake) defector Alamein Kopu. The party contested only one general election before vanishing.
Mauri Pacific 1999–2001 1999 A party established by several New Zealand First MPs shortly after a coalition between New Zealand First and the National Party broke down. Mauri Pacific remained allied to the National government, giving it crucial support, but none of the party’s MPs gained re-election in the 1999 elections.
NewLabour Party 1989–1991 1989–1991 A left-wing party established by former Labour MP Jim Anderton. It contested one election before joining with several other parties to establish the Alliance.
Pacific Party 2008–2010 2008–2008 A small party established by Taito Phillip Field aimed at advancing Pacific Peoples, as well as Christian and family values and social justice.
Progressive Party 2002-2012 2002-2011 A left-wing party with a focus on job creation and regional development, formed by Jim Anderton after the breakup of the Alliance.
Reform Party 1909–1936 1909–1936 New Zealand’s second major political party, established as a more conservative opponent to the Liberal Party. Its founder, William Massey, became its most prominent leader. It eventually merged with its former rivals, the Liberals, to form the modern National Party.
Social Credit Party 1953–1986 1966 – 1969

1979 – 1987

New Zealand’s “third party” between the 1960s and the 1980s. The Social Credit Party espoused the theory ofsocial credit, a type of monetary reform, although much of its support represented protest votes rather than support of its policies. It has since renamed itself, becoming the Democratic Party.
Social Democratic Party 1913–1916 1913–1916 An early left-wing party established at a “Unity Congress” in July 1913 as an attempt to bring together the various labour groups of the time. The party eventually amalgamated with the modern Labour Party.
Socialist Party (i) 1901–1913 ? – 1913 One of the more prominent Marxist parties in early New Zealand, strongly associated with the Federation of Labour (the “Red Fed”). It eventually merged with the more moderate United Labour Party to form the Social Democratic Party.
United New Zealand 1995–2000 1995–2000 A centrist party established by moderate MPs from both National and Labour. The party did not achieve electoral success, with only one of the seven founding MPs managing to remain in parliament. United later merged with the Future New Zealand party to form the modern United Future New Zealand.
United Labour Party 1912–1913 1912–1913 A reformed continuation of the original Labour Party. The party existed only a short time before merging with the Socialist Party to form the Social Democratic Party, although a faction rejected the new SDP as too extreme and attempted to continue on under the United Labour Party banner.
United Party 1927–1936 1927–1936 A party formed from the remnants of the Liberal Party. United governed between 1928 and 1935, initially withLabour support and later in coalition with the Reform Party. It eventually merged with Reform to establish the modern National Party.

Parties which never held seats

Party Existed Description
99 MP Party 2005–2006 A party primarily focused on reducing the total number of MPs from 120 to 99. It also believed that all constitutional changes should be put to a referendum.
Asia Pacific United Party ? – ? A party which attempted to gain support from Asian and Pacific Islander immigrants. It contested the 1996 and 1999 elections, but has since dissolved.
Bill and Ben Party 2008–2010 A joke party run by Bill and Ben, hosts of the TV show Pulp Sport.
Christian Coalition 1996–1997 A brief alliance of the Christian Democrats and the Christian Heritage Party. It narrowly missed entering parliament in the 1996 election, and disbanded shortly afterwards.
Communist Party 1929–1994 Probably New Zealand’s most prominent and long-lived communist organisation. The party generally pursued hard-line doctrines, successively following Stalin‘s Soviet UnionMao Zedong‘s China, and Enver Hoxha‘s Albania. In 1993, the party moderated its stance, adopting Trotskyism. It later merged with another party to form the group now known as Socialist Worker.
Co-operative Party 1942 – ? A short-lived party established by Albert Davy, a prominent anti-socialist political organiser. It was primarily a breakaway from the larger People’s Movement, and Davy rejoined the Movement the year after the Co-operative Party was established.
Democrat Party 1934 – ? A party established to promote the interests of the commercial sector and to oppose “socialist” legislation. The party contested the1935 elections, but failed to win any seats. Ironically, the votes which the Democrats took from the governing coalition may have assisted the victory of the left-wing Labour Party that year. The Democrat Party should not be confused with the modernDemocratic Party.
Destiny New Zealand 2003–2007 A party based around the Destiny Church, a Christian religious organisation. The party mostly campaigned on a family valuesplatform, and strongly opposed legislative changes such as the creation of same-sex civil unions and the legalisation of prostitution.
Direct Democracy Party 2005–2009 A party which seeks to increase the participation of ordinary citizens in the political process. It advocates a system of referendums similar to that used by Switzerland.
Equal Values Party 2005 – ? A left-wing party active during the 2005 election. It supported free education and healthcare, an increase to social welfarebenefits, and the establishment of compulsory superannuation schemes.
Ethnic Minority Party 1996–1997 A party focused around New Zealand’s immigrant community, particularly Chinese and Indians. The popularity of New Zealand First, a party which opposed immigration, was a significant factor in its creation. It merged into United New Zealand, but little trace of it remains today.
Family Party 2007–2010 A small Christian party established by the former Destiny New Zealand.
Family Rights Protection Party 2005–2007 A party established by a group of Pacific Islanders who claim that larger parties are taking the support of Pacific Islanders for granted, and do not do enough to help them.
Freedom Party 2005 – ? A party established by two former members of ACT New Zealand. Its policies were intended to be similar to those of ACT, but the party’s founders said that the Freedom Party will be more democratic and accountable to its members.
Future New Zealand 1998–2002 A reconfiguration of the former Christian Democrat Party. Future New Zealand retained the same family values principles as the Christian Democrats, but abandoned the explicit religious basis. Future New Zealand merged with United New Zealand to form the modern United Future New Zealand.
Green Society ? – ? A small environmentalist party. The Green Society believed that a true green party needed to be focused solely on the environment, and believed that the Green Party (then part of the Alliance) and the Progressive Green Party were both mistaken to take sides in economic and social debates.
Imperial British Conservative Party 1974 – ? joke party founded by Ian Brackenbury Channell, better known as “The Wizard of New Zealand“. True to its name, it claimed to support imperialismBritish people, and conservatism.
Kiwi Party 2007–2012 A revival of the Christian Democrats / Future New Zealand brand. The party advocates

more representative direct democracy through referenda and a return to the “Judeo-Christian ethic in democracy”.

Liberal Party 1963 – ? A party which campaigned in the 1963 elections on a platform of reducing the size of the government, introducing a written constitution, and restoring the upper house of Parliament.
Mana Māori Movement 1993 – 2005? A party based around New Zealand’s indigenous Māori inhabitants, founded by Eva Rickard, a prominent Māori activist and a former Mana Motuhake candidate.
Mana Motuhake 1979? – 2005? The most prominent Māori-based party until the creation of the modern Māori Party. Mana Motuhake held a number of seats as part of the Alliance (see above), but most of its support has now been incorporated into the Māori Party.
McGillicuddy Serious Party 1983–1999 joke party intended to satirise politics in general. Among other deliberately absurd policies it advocated the “Great Leap Backwards”, a project to reverse the industrial revolution and to re-establish a medieval way of life.
National Front 1968? – 2008 A far right party which wished to stop non-white immigration, reintroduce capital punishment and conscription, withdraw from international organisations such as the United Nations, and nullify the Treaty of Waitangi. It is sometimes accused of being a neo-Nazi group, and although the party denies this it is openly racist.
National Socialist Party 1969 – ? A party founded by prominent far-right activist Colin King-Ansell. It is sometimes considered the first noteworthy far-right party in New Zealand.
Natural Law Party 1995 – 2001? A party which based its principles on the concept of natural law as promoted by Maharishi Mahesh Yogi in his theory ofTranscendental Meditation. It drew most of its support from the New Age movement.
New Citizen Party 2010 – 2012 A short-lived party formed to represent Chinese New Zealanders. It came third in the 2011 Botany by-election, but dissolved before contesting a general election.
New Democratic Party 1972 – ? A short-lived splinter group of the Social Credit Party, founded by ousted Social Credit leader John O’Brien. It placed fifth in the 1972 elections, but failed to win any seats.
New World Order Party 2008 – 2011 A party promoting global peace through a unified World Government
New Zealand Liberals 2008 – ? A small party modelled on the old New Zealand Liberal Party and the UK Liberal Democrats. It advocates constitutional reform, republicanism, and civil rights.
New Zealand Party 1983–1986 A party established by property tycoon Bob Jones to promote free market economic policies and liberal social policies. It gained twelve percent of the vote in its first election, but then vanished almost completely. Some regard the modern ACT party as the New Zealand Party’s ideological successor, but not everyone accepts this view.
No Commercial Airport at Whenuapai Airbase Party 2008 A local party which grew out of the movement opposing a commercial airport at Auckland’s Whenuapai airbase.
One New Zealand Party 1999–2006 A small party modelled on Pauline Hanson’s One Nation Party in Australia. It opposes all special policies towards Māori.
Outdoor Recreation NZ 2001–2007 A party dedicated to promoting the interests of the hunting, fishing, and shooting communities. Outdoor Recreation New Zealand contested the 2005 election under the banner of the United Future party, although the parties did not actually merge. This working arrangement met with disappointing results.
Patriot Party ? – 2005 A small Auckland-based party established by Sid Wilson, a senior member of the National Front. The party later merged back into the Front, with Wilson becoming the Front’s new leader.
People’s Choice Party 1999 – ? A small party which was registered for the 1999 elections, but which is currently unregistered. It campaigned against MMP and in favour of reducing the size of Parliament.
People’s Movement 1940s A right-wing organisation which supported reductions in the size of government and a reform of the party system. It was a strong supporter of individualism, saying that the government of the time was advocating the subordination of the individual to the state.
Phoenix Party 1960s – 1970s A small Dunedin-based grouping, founded by Gerald Williams, who saw the then Labour Party as moribund and in need of aphoenix-like resurrection. Williams became an effective propagandist, penning campaign literature disguised as parodies of well-known songs. He later transferred his efforts to the Values Party.
Progressive Green Party 1995 – ? An environmentalist party established in opposition to the generally left-wing policies of the larger Green Party. It contested only one election before vanishing, although many of its members became active in the National Party.
Reform New Zealand 2011 A right-wing party advocating free market economics, low taxation, and reduced government.
Representative Party 2008 A self-proclaimed centrist party aiming at contesting the electorate vote.
Republican Party (i) 1967–1974 A party established to promote the creation of a New Zealand Republic. It was founded by left-wing activist Bruce Jesson, and was the product of the Republican Association, an anti-royal protest group founded by Jesson in 1966.
Republican Party (ii) 1995–2002 A party established to promote the creation of a New Zealand Republic. The party contested the 1999 elections, but only won 250 votes. Should not be confused with The Republic of New Zealand Party or the Republican Movement of Aotearoa New Zealand.
Residents Action Movement 2003–2010 A left-wing party aiming to bring together social liberals, community activists, social democrats and left-wing radicals.
Socialist Party 1930 – ? A party established by former members of the New Zealand Marxian Association, a Marxist group. Its founders created it as an alternative to the mainstream labour movement, claiming that the Labour Party had moved too far from its left-wing roots. The Socialist Party eventually became the modern World Socialist Party.
Socialist Unity Party 1966 – ? A splinter group of the Communist Party (see above). It formed around Communist Party members who rejected their party’s decision to take China’s side in the Sino-Soviet split. The Socialist Unity Party became one of the more prominent communist parties in New Zealand.
South Island Party  ? – 2002 regionalist party which called for more autonomy for the South Island, the less populous of New Zealand’s two main islands. It drew support predominantly from Otago and Southland.
Te Tawharau 1999–2007 Māori party which split off from the Mana Māori Movement. It lapsed with the formation of the Māori Party.
The Republic of New Zealand Party 2005 – 2009 A party focused on establishing a Republic in New Zealand. It also supports the adoption of a written constitution, the holding of referendums on major issues, and the abolition of race-specific government institutions.
Values Party 1972–1990 Sometimes called the world’s first national-level green party. Elements of the Values Party eventually contributed to the formation of the modern Green Party of Aotearoa New Zealand.
WIN Party 2004–2006 A single-issue party devoted to overturning the recently introduced smoking ban in bars and restaurants.

Credit: Wikipedia

February 17, 2014 / by / in
List of Governments of New Zealand

Chronological list of governments of New Zealand

# Government Term Time in office
1 Liberal 1891–1912 21 years, 168 days
2 Reform 1912–1928 16 years, 153 days
3 United 1928–1931 2 years, 286 days
4 United/Reform Coalition 1931–1935 4 years, 75 days
5 First Labour 1935–1949 14 years, 7 days
6 First National 1949–1957 7 years, 364 days
7 Second Labour 1957–1960 3 years, 0 days
8 Second National 1960–1972 11 years, 362 days
9 Third Labour 1972–1975 3 years, 4 days
10 Third National 1975–1984 8 years, 227 days
11 Fourth Labour 1984–1990 6 years, 99 days
12 Fourth National 1990–1999 9 years, 33 days
13 Fifth Labour 1999–2008 8 years, 350 days
14 Fifth National 2008– 5 years, 90 days1

1 As of 17 February 2014

February 17, 2014 / by / in
Regions of New Zealand

The region is a layer of local government in New Zealand. There are 16 regions: 11 are governed by a regional council, and five are governed by unitary authorities, which combine the functions of territorial and regional councils. The Chatham Islands Council is similar to a unitary authority, authorised under its own legislation.[1] 

Current regions

History and statutory basis

regional council means one of the regional councils listed in Part 1 of Schedule 2 of the Local Government Act 2002,[2] with Gazette notices establishing them in 1989.[3] The Act requires regional councils to promote sustainable development – the social, economic, environmental and cultural well-being of their communities.[4]

The current regions and most of their councils came about as a result of an amalgamation procedure under the Local Government Act 1974. The regional councils replaced the more than 700 ad-hoc bodies that had been formed in the preceding century – roads boards, catchment boards, drainage boards, pest control boards, harbour boards, domain and reserve boards.[5] In addition they took over some roles which had previously been performed by county councils. The unitary authority of theAuckland Council was formed in 2010, replacing the Auckland Regional Council.

The boundaries of the regions are based largely on drainage basins. This anticipated the responsibilities of the Resource Management Act 1991.[6] Most regional boundaries conform with territorial authority boundaries but there are many exceptions. An example is Taupo District, split between four regions, although most of its area is in the Waikato Region.


Regional authorities are primarily responsible for environmental management, including water, contaminant discharge and coastal management, river and lake management including flood and drainage control, regional land management; regional transport (including public transport) and harbours, biosecurity or pest management; while territorial authorities are responsible for: local-level land use management (urban and rural planning); network utility services such as water, sewerage, stormwater and solid waste management; local roads; libraries; parks and reserves; and community development. Property rates (land taxes) are used to fund both regional and territorial government activities. There is often a high degree of co-operation between regional and territorial councils as they have complementary roles.

Resource management functions

Regional councils have these specific functions under the Resource Management Act 1991.

  • Planning for the integrated management of natural and physical resources [7]
  • Planning for regionally significant land uses [8]
  • Soil conservation, water quality and quantity, water ecosystems, natural hazards, hazardous substances [9]
  • Controlling the coastal marine area [10]
  • Controlling via resource consents the taking, use, damming or diverting of water [11]
  • Controlling via resource consents the discharge of contaminants [12]
  • Establishing of rules in a regional plan to allocate water [13]
  • Controlling via resource consents the beds of waterbodies [14]

Other functions

Regional councils have responsibility for functions under other statutes;[15]

  • flood and river control under the Soil Conservation and Rivers Control Act 1941,
  • reserves vested in regional councils under the Reserves Act 1977,
  • civil defence under the Civil Defence Act 1990,
  • regional pest management under the Biosecurity Act 1993,
  • harbour and water navigation under the Maritime Transport Act 1994,
  • hazardous waste under the HSNO Act 1996,
  • public transport planning under the Land Transport Act 1998, and
  • supervision of the safety of dams under the Building Act 2004.[16]

List of regions



Regions_of_NZ_Numbered1 Region Regional council Chair Council seat Island Area (km²)[17] Population[18] ISO 3166-2 Code
1 Northland Northland Regional Council Craig Brown Whangarei North 13,941 158,700 NZ-NTL
2 Auckland (1) Auckland Council Len Brown Auckland North 5,600 1,529,300 NZ-AUK
3 Waikato Waikato Regional Council Peter Buckley Hamilton North 25,598 418,500 NZ-WKO
4 Bay of Plenty Bay of Plenty Regional Council John Cronin Whakatane North 12,447 278,100 NZ-BOP
5 Gisborne (1) Gisborne District Council Meng Foon Gisborne North 8,351 46,700 NZ-GIS
6 Hawke’s Bay Hawke’s Bay Regional Council Fenton Wilson Napier North 14,164 155,000 NZ-HKB
7 Taranaki Taranaki Regional Council David MacLeod Stratford North 7,273 110,500 NZ-TKI
8 Manawatu-Whanganui Horizons Regional Council Bruce Gordon Palmerston North North 22,215 232,700 NZ-MWT
9 Wellington Greater Wellington Regional Council Fran Wilde Wellington North 8,124 492,500 NZ-WGN
10 Tasman (1) Tasman District Council Richard Kempthorne Richmond South 9,786 48,600 NZ-TAS
11 Nelson (1) Nelson City Council Rachel Reese Nelson South 445 46,800 NZ-NSN
12 Marlborough (1) Marlborough District Council Alistair Sowman Blenheim South 12,484 45,900 NZ-MBH
13 West Coast West Coast Regional Council Ross Scarlett Greymouth South 23,336 32,700 NZ-WTC
14 Canterbury Canterbury Regional Council Margaret Bazley Christchurch South 45,346 566,000 NZ-CAN
15 Otago Otago Regional Council Stephen Woodhead Dunedin South 31,990 213,200 NZ-OTA
16 Southland Southland Regional Council Ali Timms Invercargill South 34,347 94,800 NZ-STL
(1) These regions have unitary authorities.

Areas outside regional boundaries

Some outlying islands are not included within regional boundaries. The Chatham Islands is not in a region, although its council has some of the powers of a regional council under the Resource Management Act. The Kermadecs and the sub-Antarctic islands are inhabited only by a small number of Department of Conservation staff, and the Conservation Minister is empowered to act as a regional council for these islands.


Regional councils are popularly elected every three years in accordance with the Local Electoral Act 2001.[19] Councils may use a first past the post or single transferable vote system. The chairperson is selected by the elected council members.[20]

Predecessors of current regional structure

Auckland Regional Council

Main article: Auckland Regional Council

Wellington Region

Wellington had a regional council, and earlier the Wellington Regional Planning Authority.

United Councils

In 1978, legislation was passed enabling the formation of regions with United Councils. 20 regions were designated, excluding the ARA and WRC areas. For most of the country this was the first regional level of government since the abolition of provinces in 1876. United Councils were not directly elected bodies – they consisted of appointed councillors from the various Territorial Local Authorities within the region.

The only responsibilities mandated by the legislation were coordination of civil defence and development of a regional plan, although the constituent TLAs could agree on additional responsibilities at the point of formation of each United Council. For example, in a number of cases the United Council took responsibility for the allocation of revenue from regional petrol taxes.

The United Councils were based in the facilities of the largest TLA in the region and largely dependent on the TLAs for resources. They were allowed to levy rates but in most cases had minimal operating budgets (below $100,000 per annum). The notable exception was Canterbury, where the United Council had a number of responsibilities. Only one united council undertook any direct operational activity – a forestry project in Wanganui.[5]

List of United Councils

Region United Council formed Rates Levy (1982/83)
Northland January 1980 $118,000
Thames Valley July 1980 $46,000
Waikato October 1980 $36,000
Bay of Plenty August 1979 $17,000
Tongariro November 1979 $50,000
East Cape August 1979 $16,000
Hawkes Bay December 1983
Taranaki February 1979 $60,000
Whanganui May 1979 $81,000
Wairarapa November 1978 $33,000
Manawatu May 1981 0
Horowhenua June 1980 $47,000
Nelson Bays November 1978 $84,000
Marlborough December 1978 $30,000
Canterbury May 1979 $605,000
West Coast November 1978 $32,000
Aorangi 1983
Coastal / North Otago April 1983
Clutha / Central Otago November 1980 $33,000
Southland May 1979 $88,000

Source: Summary of the Functions and Activities of United Councils Dept of Internal Affairs, 1984.

This is a list of notable New Zealand Catholics. All additions should be sourced and ideally their faith or Catholic identity should be significant to their notability.


  1. Chatham Islands Council Act 1995, Parliament of New Zealand, 1995, Statute No 041, Commenced: 1 November 1995, retrieved 4 February 2008.
  2. “Local Government Act 2002 No 84 – Interpretation”. Retrieved 2008-07-17.
  3. “Local Government Act 2002 No 84 – Part 1, Schedule 2”. Retrieved 2008-07-17.
  4. Relationship between the Local Government Act and the RMA Quality Planning The RMA Resource, retrieved 11 October 2007.
  5. ^ Jump up to: a b Bush, Graham (1995). Local Government & Politics in New Zealand (2nd ed.). Auckland University Press. ISBN 1-86940-126-3.
  6. New Zealand Historical Atlas – McKinnon, Malcolm (Editor); David Bateman, 1997, Plate 98
  7. Resource Management Act, Section 30(1)(a)- Parliament of New Zealand, 1991
  8. Resource Management Act, Section 30(1)(b)- Parliament of New Zealand, 1991
  9. Resource Management Act, Section 30(1)(c)- Parliament of New Zealand, 1991
  10. Resource Management Act, Section 30(1)(d)- Parliament of New Zealand, 1991
  11. Resource Management Act, Section 30(1)(e)- Parliament of New Zealand, 1991
  12. Resource Management Act, Section 30(1)(f)- Parliament of New Zealand, 1991
  13. Resource Management Act, Section 30(1)(fa)- Parliament of New Zealand, 1991. NB this is a new paragraph added in 2005.
  14. Resource Management Act, Section 30(1)(g)- Parliament of New Zealand, 1991
  15. Harris, R. (2004) ‘Local government and development legislation’, Chapter 3G, Handbook of Environmental Law, Editor Harris, R., ISBN 0-9597851-8-3, Royal Forest and Bird Protection Society of New Zealand, Wellington 2004, page 130.
  16. Sections 135, 142, 150, and 154 Building Act 2004, Parliament of New Zealand.
  17. Living Density: Table 1, Housing Statistics, Statistics New Zealand. Accessed 25 January 2009. Areas are based on 2001 boundaries. Water bodies greater than 15 hectares are excluded.
  18. “Subnational Population Estimates: At 30 June 2013 (provisional)”. Statistics New Zealand. 22 October 2013. Retrieved 4 November 2013. Also “Infoshare; Group: Population Estimates – DPE; Table: Estimated Resident Population for Urban Areas, at 30 June (1996+) (Annual-Jun)”. Statistics New Zealand. 19 November 2013. Retrieved 28 November 2013.
  19. Local Government Act 2002, s41(1)(a), Parliament of New Zealand.
  20. Local Government Act 2002, s41(1)(b), Parliament of New Zealand.
February 12, 2014 / by / in
Prime Ministers of New Zealand by age

This is a list of Prime Ministers of New Zealand by age, including when they were born, what age they were when they were appointed Prime Minister, what age were they when they left the office and the age at which they died, or their current age as of 11 February 2014 if they are still alive. The table can be sorted by each different category.

The date of appointment as Prime Minister is the date on which they were sworn in by the Governor-General for their first term. The day on which they departed office is the final day of their final term. This is either the day a new Prime Minister was appointed or their date of death if they died whilst in office.

# Prime Minister Date of birth Start date of

(first) term

Age at beginning of

(first) term

End date of

(final) term

Total time

in office

Date of death Lifespan
1 Henry Sewell 7 September 1807 7 May 1856 48 years, 243 days 20 May 1856 13 days 14 May 1879 26,182 days (71 years,249 days)
2 William Fox 1812 20 May 1856 ~44 years 8 April 1873 1,609 days 23 June 1893 ~81 years
3 Edward Stafford 23 April 1819 2 June 1856 37 years, 40 days 11 October 1872 3,248 days 14 February 1901 29,882 days (81 years,297 days)
4 Alfred Domett 20 May 1811 6 August 1862 51 years, 78 days 30 October 1863 450 days 2 November 1887 27,925 days (76 years,166 days)
5 Frederick Whitaker 23 April 1812 30 October 1863 51 years, 190 days 25 September 1883 913 days 4 December 1891 29,079 days (79 years,225 days)
6 Frederick Weld 9 May 1823 24 November 1864 41 years, 199 days 16 October 1865 326 days 20 July 1891 24,909 days (68 years,72 days)
7 George Waterhouse 6 April 1824 11 October 1872 48 years, 188 days 3 March 1873 143 days 6 August 1906 30,071 days (82 years,122 days)
8 Julius Vogel 24 February 1835 8 April 1873 38 years, 43 days 1 September 1876 1,018 days 12 March 1899 23,392 days (64 years,16 days)
9 Daniel Pollen 2 June 1813 6 July 1875 62 years, 34 days 15 February 1876 224 days 18 May 1896 30,301 days (82 years,351 days)
10 Harry Atkinson 1 November 1831 1 September 1876 44 years, 305 days 24 January 1891 1,943 days 28 June 1892 22,155 days (60 years,240 days)
11 George Grey 14 April 1812 13 October 1877 65 years, 182 days 8 October 1879 725 days 19 September 1898 31,569 days (86 years,158 days)
12 John Hall 18 December 1824 8 October 1879 54 years, 294 days 21 April 1882 926 days 25 June 1907 30,138 days (82 years,189 days)
13 Robert Stout 28 September 1844 16 August 1884 39 years, 323 days 8 October 1887 1,142 days 19 July 1930 31,339 days (85 years,294 days)
14 John Ballance 27 March 1839 24 January 1891 51 years, 303 days 27 April 1893[1] 824 days 27 April 1893 19,755 days (54 years,31 days)
15 Richard Seddon 22 June 1845 27 April 1893 47 years, 309 days 10 June 1906[1] 4,791 days 10 June 1906 22,267 days (60 years,353 days)
16 William Hall-Jones 16 January 1851 10 June 1906 55 years, 145 days 6 August 1906 57 days 19 June 1936 31,200 days (85 years,155 days)
17 Joseph Ward 26 April 1856 6 August 1906 50 years, 102 days 28 May 1930 2,595 days 8 July 1930 27,100 days (74 years,73 days)
18 Thomas Mackenzie 10 March 1854 28 March 1912 58 years, 18 days 10 July 1912 104 days 14 February 1930 27,734 days (75 years,341 days)
19 William Massey 26 March 1856 10 July 1912 56 years, 106 days 10 May 1925[1] 4,687 days 10 May 1925 25,246 days (69 years,45 days)
20 Francis Bell 31 March 1851 10 May 1925 74 years, 40 days 30 May 1925 20 days 13 March 1936 31,028 days (84 years,348 days)
21 Gordon Coates 3 February 1878 30 May 1925 47 years, 116 days 10 December 1928 1,290 days 27 May 1943 23,853 days (65 years,113 days)
22 George Forbes 12 March 1869 28 May 1930 61 years, 77 days 6 December 1935 2,018 days 17 May 1947 28,554 days (78 years,66 days)
23 Michael Savage 23 March 1872 6 December 1935 63 years, 258 days 27 March 1940[1] 1,573 days 27 March 1940 24,840 days (68 years,4 days)
24 Peter Fraser 28 August 1884 27 March 1940 55 years, 212 days 13 December 1949 3,548 days 12 December 1950 24,211 days (66 years,106 days)
25 Sidney Holland 18 October 1893 13 December 1949 56 years, 56 days 20 September 1957 2,838 days 5 August 1961 24,762 days (67 years,291 days)
26 Keith Holyoake 11 February 1904 20 September 1957 53 years, 221 days 7 February 1972 4,157 days 8 December 1983 29,155 days (79 years,300 days)
27 Walter Nash 12 February 1882 12 December 1957 75 years, 303 days 12 December 1960 1,096 days 4 June 1968 31,523 days (86 years,113 days)
28 Jack Marshall 5 March 1912 7 February 1972 59 years, 339 days 8 December 1972 305 days 30 August 1988 27,937 days (76 years,178 days)
29 Norman Kirk 6 January 1923 8 December 1972 49 years, 337 days 31 August 1974[1] 631 days 31 August 1974 18,865 days (51 years,237 days)
30 Bill Rowling 15 November 1927 6 September 1974 46 years, 295 days 12 December 1975 462 days 31 October 1995 24,822 days (67 years,350 days)
31 Robert Muldoon 25 September 1921 12 December 1975 54 years, 78 days 26 July 1984 3,149 days 5 August 1992 25,882 days (70 years,315 days)
32 David Lange 4 August 1942 26 July 1984 41 years, 357 days 8 August 1989 1,839 days 13 August 2005 23,020 days (63 years,9 days)
33 Geoffrey Palmer 21 April 1942 8 August 1989 47 years, 109 days 4 September 1990 392 days 26,229 days (71 years,296 days)
34 Mike Moore 28 January 1949 4 September 1990 41 years, 219 days 2 November 1990 59 days 23,755 days (65 years,14 days)
35 Jim Bolger 31 May 1935 2 November 1990 55 years, 155 days 8 December 1997 2,593 days 28,746 days (78 years,256 days)
36 Jenny Shipley 4 February 1952 8 December 1997 45 years, 307 days 5 December 1999 727 days 22,653 days (62 years,7 days)
37 Helen Clark 26 February 1950 5 December 1999 49 years, 282 days 19 November 2008 3,272 days 23,361 days (63 years,350 days)
38 John Key 9 August 1961 19 November 2008 47 years, 102 days Incumbent 1,910 days 19,179 days (52 years,186 days)
# Prime Minister Date of birth Start date of

(first) term

Age at beginning of

(first) term

End date of

(final) term

Total time

in office

Date of death Lifespan

February 11, 2014 / by / in