Geography

List of shopping malls in New Zealand

Largest by total retail space

Name City First constructed Floors Total retail space Retail stores Anchor tenants Cinema screens Parking spaces Visitors annually Total sales Notes
The Base Hamilton 2005 1 81,000 m² 183 8 6 (Opened August 2011) 2153 8.0 million $325m The new enclosed shopping mall “Te Awa” made The Base New Zealand’s largest retail centre by rentable area under one ownership. Further stages of development are underway A new level with 50 stores is planned to open in 2013. This level has already been constructed. A further 25,000m2 of large format retail is already consented and will open from 2012 to 2014.
Sylvia Park Auckland 2007 2 71,000 m² 204+ 6 10 4000 6.3 million $300m Sylvia Parks Development has finished
Westfield Riccarton Christchurch 1965 2 55,149 m² 200[1] 7 7 2400 9.8m (2007) $332m (2009) First NZ mall to reach $300m in annual sales (2007)
Westfield Albany Auckland 2007 2 53,154 m² 150 4 8 2300+ ? $281m (2009) 70,000 m² total indoor space includes 17,000 m² of office space[2]
Westfield Queensgate Lower Hutt 1986 2 45,467 m² 174+ 2 9 1855+ 8m+ $203m
Westfield St Lukes Auckland 1971 3 43,000 m² 168 4 8 2000+ 6m ?
Northlands Shopping Centre Christchurch 1967 1 42,159 m² 135+ 5 ? 1700+ ? ? [3][4]
Westfield WestCity Auckland 1974 3 36,921 m² 130 4 8 1492 8m ?
Westfield Manukau City Auckland 1976 2 36,793 m² 197 2 10 1885 7.5m $176m (2006)
The Palms Christchurch 1997 2 34,000 m² 110 3 8 1450+ ? ?

For comparison, the largest mall in Canada, the West Edmonton Mall in Edmonton, Canada has a retail space of 350,000 m². The largest in the United States of America is the 230,000 m² Mall of America in Bloomington, Minnesota. Melbourne’s Chadstone Shopping Centre, which has been described as the largest shopping centre in the Southern Hemisphere, has 190,000 m² of retail space.[5]

North Island

Auckland

  • Albany Mega Centre – Albany
  • Atrium on Elliot – Central Business District
  • Botany Town Centre – Botany Downs
  • DFS Galeria Customshouse – Central Business District
  • Dressmart – Onehunga
  • Eastridge Shopping Centre – Orakei
  • Highbury Shopping Centre – Birkenhead
  • Hunters Plaza – Papatoetoe
  • Kelston Shopping Centre – Kelston
  • Lynnmall – New Lynn
  • Manukau Supa Centa – Manukau Central
  • Meadowbank Shopping Centre – Meadowbank
  • Meadowlands Shopping Plaza – Botany Downs
  • Milford Shopping Centre – Milford
  • Pacific Plaza – Whangaparaoa
  • Pakuranga Plaza – Pakuranga
  • Queen’s Arcade – Central Business District
  • Royal Oak Mall – Royal Oak
  • Shore City – Takapuna
  • Southmall Manurewa – Manurewa
  • Sylvia Park – Sylvia Park
  • Three Kings Shopping Mall – Three Kings
  • Waitakere Mega Centre – Henderson
  • Westfield brand malls:
    • Westfield Albany – Albany (currently New Zealand’s biggest shopping center)
    • Westfield Downtown – Central Business District
    • Westfield Glenfield – Glenfield
    • Westfield Manukau City – Manukau Central
    • Westfield 277 Newmarket – Newmarket (previously trading as Two Double Seven)
    • Westfield St Lukes – St. Lukes
    • Westfield WestCity – Henderson
  • Westgate – Waitakere City

Hamilton

  • The Base
  • Centre Place
  • Downtown Plaza
  • Westfield Chartwell

Kapiti Coast

  • Coastlands Shoppingtown
  • Raumati Beach Village Shopping Centre [3]

Levin

  • Levin Mall

New Plymouth

  • Centre City Shopping Centre [4]
  • Downtown Plaza
  • The Valley Mega Centre

Palmerston North

  • Downtown Shopping Centre
  • The Plaza Shopping Centre

Rotorua

  • Central Mall

Tauranga

  • Bay Central
  • City Central Mall
  • Bayfair, Mount Maunganui
  • Bethlehem Town Centre
  • Fashion Island, Papamoa
  • Fraser Cove
  • Gate Pa Shopping Centre
  • Goddards Centre
  • Palm Beach Plaza, Papamoa
  • Home Zone Centre, Mount Maunganui

Wellington

  • Capital Gateway Centre. Thorndon Quay
  • Capital on the Quay
  • Churchill Drive Shopping Center
  • Cuba Mall
  • Harbour City Shopping Centre
  • Johnsonville Shopping Centre
  • Newlands Mall
  • North City Shopping Centre
  • Trentham City Shopping Centre [5]
  • Wainuiomata Mall
  • Westfield Queensgate

South Island

Christchurch

  • Airport City (New terminal shopping precinct pending… due to open 2011)
  • The Arts Centre
  • Avonhead Mall
  • Barrington Mall (Expansion plans pending)
  • Bishopdale Mall
  • Bush Inn Centre
  • City Mall (Downtown – Redevelopment in progress including provision for light-rail network)
  • Colombo Street Shopping Precinct
  • The Crossing (Linked to the Downtown Bus Exchange)
  • Dress-Smart Mall (Hornby – Expansion completed 2009)
  • Eastgate
  • Fendalton Mall
  • Ferrymead Central
  • Guthrey Centre
  • High Street Shopping Prescinct
  • Homebase Shirley
  • The Hub Hornby
  • Ilam Shopping Centre
  • The Lanes (Under Development… includes SOL Square)
  • Merivale Mall
  • New Brighton Mall
  • Northlands Mall
  • Northwood Supa Center
  • The Palms Shopping Centre
  • Parklands Shopping Centre
  • Pegasus Town Shopping Centre (Staged development… Due for completion around 2015)
  • Rolleston Square Shopping Centre
  • South City Centre (Redevelopment and expansion pending by Multiplex)
  • Styx Centre (Stage 2 Northwood) 47,000sqm due to open 2017. To be modelled on Auckland’s Botany Centre
  • Sydenham Central Mall
  • Tower Junction
  • Triangle Centre
  • Victoria Street Shopping Precinct
  • Westfield Riccarton ($75m expansion opens May 28, 2009)

Proposed Shopping Developments:

  • Chapple Place Hornby. Construction has commencend on new Countdown supermarket. Further tenants likely.
  • Moorhouse/Montreal Development
  • Prestons Shopping Centre – to be incorporated in the proposed 2500 section ‘Prestons’ subdivision in Marshlands.
  • Spitfire Place Retail development on Johns Road/Memorial Road corner.

NOTE: Several of Christchurch’s malls were badly affected by the February 2011 Christchurch earthquake and are currently being assessed as to their continued structural viability.

Dunedin

  • Centre City Mall
  • Gardens Mall
  • Golden Centre
  • Meridian Mall
  • Roslyn Village Shopping Centre
  • South City Mall
  • Wall Street

Invercargill

  • Cambridge Place
  • South City Mall

Nelson

  • Richmond Mall

Queenstown

  • O’Conell’s Shopping Centre
  • Remarkables Park Town Centre

Timaru

  • Northtown Mall
  • Highfield Mall
February 27, 2014 / by / in
List of tallest structures in New Zealand

Tallest structures

Rank Name City Height Floors Year Notes
1 Sky Tower Auckland 328 metres (1,076 ft) 38 1996 Tallest overall structure in New Zealand.
2 Titahi Bay AM radio transmitter Porirua 212 metres (696 ft) none 1937/1979  
3 New Plymouth Power Stationchimney New Plymouth 198 metres (650 ft) none 1974 Decommissioned in 2008 but the chimney still stands.

 

4 Vero Centre Auckland 172 metres (564 ft) 38 2000 Tallest office building in New Zealand.

 

5 Metropolis Auckland 155 metres (509 ft) 39 1999 Tallest residential building in New Zealand.

 

6 ANZ Centre Auckland 143 metres (469 ft) 35 1991  
7 PriceWaterhouseCoopersTower Auckland 142 metres (466 ft) 29 2002  
8 Oaks Residences Auckland 130 metres (427 ft) 29 2006  
9 Lumley Centre Auckland 125 metres (410 ft) 29 2005  
10 Mount Kaukau television transmitter Wellington 122 metres (400 ft) none 1965  
11 Sugarloaf television transmitter Christchurch 121 metres (397 ft) none 1966  
12 The Sentinel Apartments Auckland 120 metres (394 ft) 29 2007  
13 Quay West Auckland 117 metres (384 ft) 20 1997  
14= ASB Bank Centre Auckland 116 metres (381 ft) 29 1991  
14= Majestic Centre Wellington 116 metres (381 ft) 29 1991 Tallest office building in Wellington.

 

16 Precinct Apartments Auckland 115 metres (377 ft) 33 2003  
17 Crowne Plaza Auckland 110 metres (361 ft) 29 1990  
18 BNZ Tower Auckland 106 metres (348 ft) 28 1987  
19 IAG Tower Auckland 104 metres (341 ft) 29 1988 Formerly the headquarters of Fay Richwhite.

 

20 State Insurance Building Wellington 103 metres (338 ft) 26 1984 Headquarters of the BNZ from 1984 to 1998.

 

21 Deloitte Centre Auckland 100 metres (328 ft) 23 2009  
22 HSBC Tower, Wellington Wellington 94 metres (308 ft) 25 2003  
23= Phillips Fox Tower Auckland 92 metres (302 ft) 23 1987  
23= Qantas House Auckland 92 metres (302 ft) 24 1986  
23= CityLife Auckland Auckland 90 metres (295 ft) 26 1998  
23= City Gardens Auckland 90 metres (295 ft) 28 2004  
23= Vodafone on the Park Wellington 90 metres (295 ft) 25 1998 Formerly Mobil on the Park.

 

23= Bowen House Wellington 90 metres (295 ft) 22 1991 Tallest Government building.

 

29= Stamford Plaza Auckland Auckland 88 metres (289 ft) 20 1983/2008 Extra storeys were added in 2008.

 

29= InterContinental Wellington Wellington 88 metres (289 ft) 26 1988  
31 AMP Tower (Quay Tower) Auckland 87 metres (285 ft) 22 1980  
32 Pacific Tower Christchurch 86 metres (282 ft) 23 2010 Tallest building in the South Island.

 

33= Rifleman Tower Auckland 85 metres (279 ft) 26 1990  
33= Gen-i Tower Auckland 85 metres (279 ft) 22 2000  
35 Travelodge Plimmer Towers Wellington 84 metres (276 ft) 20 1975 Originally built as the Williams Centre. Tallest building in Wellington until 1984.

 

36 HSBC Building Auckland 81 metres (266 ft) 20 1973  
37= AXA Centre Auckland 80 metres (262 ft) 20 1995  
37= National Bank Tower Auckland 80 metres (262 ft) 17 1988 Formerly Arthur Andersen Tower.

 

39 125 The Terrace Wellington 77 metres (253 ft) 21 1986  
40= SkyCity Grand Auckland 75 metres (246 ft) 24 2004  
40= Altitude Apartments Auckland 75 metres (246 ft) 22 2004  
42 West Plaza Auckland 74 metres (243 ft) 18 1974  

Former

Name City Height Floors Year Notes
Hotel Grand Chancellor, Christchurch Christchurch 85 metres (279 ft) 26 1986 Demolition completed following the 2011 Canterbury Earthquake.

 

Price Waterhouse Building Christchurch 76 metres (249 ft) 20 1988 Demolition completed following the 2011 Canterbury Earthquake.

 

Proposed

Name City Height* Floors* Year* Notes
NDG Auckland Centre Auckland 209 metres (686 ft) 52 2020 Resource consent was granted in February 2014, but building consent is yet to be approved. On the site of the Elliot Tower proposal. Like that proposal this building will be taller than the Vero Centre and become Auckland’s second tallest structure after the Sky Tower.

 

The Antipodean Auckland 130 metres (427 ft) 39 Approved

 

Westfield Downtown Auckland 168 metres (551 ft) 41 Approved

 

Dunedin Waterfront Hotel Dunedin 97 metres (318 ft) 28 Application declined in June 2013, but going back to appeal. Would be the tallest building in the South Island 

 

Cancelled

Name City Height* Floors* Notes
Elliot Tower Auckland 232 metres (761 ft) 68 This project was approved, but construction never went ahead, and the site was later sold.

 

February 27, 2014 / by / in
List of reduplicated New Zealand place names

This is a list of places in New Zealand with reduplicated names, often as a result of the grammatical rules of the Māori language from which many of the names derive.

In Maori, both partial and full reduplication occurs. The change in sense is sometimes to reduce the intensity of the meaning, e.g. wera, hot, werawera, warm.

Place names

  • Hari Hari
  • Horohoro
  • Karekare
  • Karikari Peninsula
  • Katikati
  • Mount Kaukau
  • Kawakawa
  • Kerikeri
  • Kihikihi
  • Kohukohu
  • Matamata
  • Meremere
  • Naenae
  • Ongaonga
  • Paremoremo
  • Piopio
  • Ramarama
February 20, 2014 / by / in
List of New Zealand railway museums and heritage lines

Members of the Federation of Rail Organisations New Zealand

Railway museums, heritage lines, societies, clubs, trusts, etc., in New Zealand.

North Island

Northland
  • Bay of Islands Vintage Railway Charitable Trust
  • Whangarei Steam & Model Railway Club
Auckland
  • Mainline Steam
  • Glenbrook Vintage Railway
  • Railway Enthusiasts Society
  • The Waitakere Tramline Society
  • Watercare Services
  • Western Springs Railway Museum of Transport and Technology
  • Western Springs Tramway Museum of Transport and Technology
  • Whangaparaoa Narrow Gauge Railway
Waikato / Coromandel
  • Bush Tramway Club
  • DF 1501 Restoration Charitable Trust
  • Driving Creek Railway
  • Goldfields Railway
  • Victoria Battery Tramway Society
  • Te Aroha Mountain Railway
Bay of Plenty
  • Rotorua – Ngongotaha Rail Trust
  • Geyserland Express Trust
East Cape / Hawke’s Bay
  • East Coast Museum of Technology
  • Gisborne City Vintage Railway Inc
  • Hawkes Bay Steam Society
  • Ormondville Rail Preservation Group
Taranaki
  • Hooterville Heritage Charitable Trust(No longer operating)
  • Pioneer Village Soc Inc
  • Waitara Railway Preservation Society
Wairarapa
  • Friends of the Fell Society Fell Engine Museum Featherston
  • Pahiatua Railcar Society
  • Wairarapa Railway Restoration Society, based at the Carterton Railway Station
Manawatu
  • Feilding and District Steam Rail Society
  • Steamrail Wanganui Incorporated
Wellington
  • Craven Crane Preservation Group
  • Department of Conservation
  • Mainline Steam
  • New Zealand Railway and Locomotive Society (or see website)
  • Rail Heritage Trust of New Zealand
  • Rimutaka Incline Railway Heritage Trust
  • Silver Stream Railway
  • Steam Incorporated (Engine Shed – Paekakariki)
  • Wellington and Manawatu Railway Trust
  • Wellington Tramway Museum (or see website)
  • Paekakariki Station Precinct Trust
  • Wellington CableCar Museum

South Island

Nelson / Marlborough
  • Blenheim Riverside Railway
  • Nelson Railway Society (Founders Heritage Park)
Westland
  • Charming Creek Railway
  • Reefton Historic Trust Board
  • West Coast Historical & Mechanical Society, Shantytown
  • Westport Railway Preservation Society
Canterbury
  • Mainline Steam
  • Ashburton Railway & Historical Society (Plains Vintage Railway)
  • Canterbury Railway Society (Ferrymead Railway)
  • Canterbury Steam Preservation Society (McLeans Island Steamscene)
  • Christchurch Tramway Ltd
  • Diesel Traction Group
  • Heritage Tramways Trust
  • Midland Rail Heritage Trust
  • Midland Railway Company (NZ) Ltd
  • Pleasant Point Museum and Railway
  • Tramway Historical Society (Ferrymead Tramway)
  • Weka Pass Railway
Otago
  • Oamaru Steam & Railway Restoration Society [1]
  • Otago Excursion Train Trust
  • Otago Railway & Locomotive Society (Ocean Beach Railway)
  • Project Steam (Dunedin) Inc
  • Taieri Gorge Railway [2]
Southland
  • Ohai Railway Board Heritage Trust

Cook Islands

  • Rarotonga Steam Railway
February 20, 2014 / by / in
List of power stations in New Zealand

This is a list of power stations in New Zealand.

The list is not exhaustive – only power stations over 0.5 MW and significant power stations below 0.5 MW are listed.

 

Bioenergy power stations

Name Location Fuel(s) Type Operator Capacity (MW) Commissioned Notes
Greenmount near Botany Downs, Auckland Biogas Vector 5.5 1992
Kawerau (CHH) Kawerau, Bay of Plenty Wood cogeneration Carter Holt Harvey 27
Pan Pac Whirinaki, Hawke’s Bay Wood cogeneration Pan Pac Forest Products 12.8 2005
Rosedale near Albany, Auckland Biogas Mighty River Power 2.8 1992
Silverstream Upper Hutt Biogas Mighty River Power 2.7 1994
Southern Landfill Wellington Biogas Todd Energy 1.1
Tirohia Waikato Biomass Mighty River Power 2.0 2008

Geothermal power stations

Name Location Field Operator Capacity (MW) Commissioned Notes
Kawerau (BoPE) Kawerau, Bay of Plenty Kawerau Bay of Plenty Energy 6.3 1989, 1993
Kawerau (kA24) Kawerau, Bay of Plenty Kawerau Geothermal Developments 8.3 2008
Kawerau(MRP) Kawerau, Bay of Plenty

38°03′47″S176°43′38″E

Kawerau Mighty River Power 100 2008
Mokai northwest of Taupo

38°31′52″S175°55′39″E

Mokai Mighty River Power 112 2000
Nga Awa Purua north of Taupo

38°36′50″S176°11′02″E

Rotokawa Mighty River Power 140 2010 Largest geothermal turbine in the world (147 MW rated)
Ngatamariki north of Taupo Ngatamariki Mighty River Power 82 2013
Ngawha near Kaikohe, Northland

35°25′03″S173°51′07″E

Ngawha Top Energy 25 1998
Ohaaki between Rotorua and Taupo

38°31′37″S176°17′31″E

Ohaaki Contact Energy 70 1989
Poihipi north of Taupo

38°37′49″S176°2′30″E

Wairakei Contact Energy 55 1997
Rotokawa north of Taupo

38°36′45″S176°11′37″E

Rotokawa Mighty River Power 33 1997
Te Huka north of Taupo

38°40′1″S176°7′5″E

Tauhara Contact Energy 23 2010
Wairakei north of Taupo

38°37′37″S176°06′19″E

Wairakei Contact Energy 181 1958, 2005 First flash steam geothermal station in the world.

Under construction

Name Location Field Operator Capacity (MW) Commissioning Notes
Kawerau (NST) Kawerau, Bay of Plenty Kawerau Norske Skog Tasman 25 2012
Te Mihi north of Taupo Wairakei Contact Energy 166 2013

Source:[1]

Hydroelectric power stations

Name Location Scheme No. Turbines Operator Capacity (MW) Commissioned Notes
Aniwhenua Bay of Plenty

38°17′37″S 176°47′32″E

Bay of Plenty Electricity 25 1979
Arapuni east of Putaruru, Waikato

38°04′17″S 175°38′36″E

Waikato River 8 Mighty River Power 196.7 1929, 1946
Aratiatia north of Taupo

38°36′57″S 176°8′33″E

Waikato River 3 Mighty River Power 78 1964
Argyle Marlborough

41°40′15″S 173°12′12″E

Branch River TrustPower 3.8 1983
Arnold West Coast

42°31′45″S 171°24′41″E

TrustPower 3.0 1932
Atiamuri between Taupo and Tokoroa, Waikato

38°23′35″S 176°1′24″E

Waikato River 4 Mighty River Power 84 1962
Aviemore east of Otematata, Canterbury

44°39′21″S 170°21′18″E

Waitaki River 4 Meridian Energy 220 1968 [2]
Benmore north of Otematata, Canterbury

44°33′51″S 170°11′50″E

Waitaki River 6 Meridian Energy 540 1965 [2]
Cobb Tasman

41°06′13″S 172°41′16″E

TrustPower 34.3 1956
Coleridge Canterbury

43°21′51″S 171°31′37″E

TrustPower 45 1914
Clyde near Clyde, Otago

45°10′46″S 169°18′25″E

Clutha River 4 Contact Energy 432 1992
Dillmans West Coast TrustPower 3.5 1928
Falls Otago-Southland Pioneer Generation 1.2
Fraser Otago-Southland Pioneer Generation 2.8
Fereday Hydro Power Fereday Island 4 Fereday Hydro Ltd 0.3 2008
Highbank near Methven, Canterbury

43°34′24″S 171°44′08″E

Rangitata Diversion TrustPower 25.2 1945 [3]
Hinemaiaia south of Taupo, Waikato

38°53′24″S 176°05′27″E

TrustPower 6.1 1952, 1966, 1982
Kaitawa Lake Waikaremoana, Hawke’s Bay

38°48′12″S 177°07′52″E

Waikaremoana Genesis Energy 36 1948
Karapiro near Cambridge, Waikato

37°55′26″S 175°32′21″E

Waikato River 3 Mighty River Power 90 1948
Kourarau east of Carterton, Wellington Genesis Energy 1.1 1923, 1925
Kumara West Coast TrustPower 6.5 1928
Lloyd Mandeno west of Tauranga Kaimai TrustPower 15.6
Lower Mangapapa west of Tauranga Kaimai TrustPower 6.25
Manapouri Lake Manapouri, Southland

45°31′17″S 167°16′40″E

7 Meridian Energy 850 1971, 2002
Mangahao east of Shannon, Manawatu-Wanganui

40°34′36″S 175°27′1″E

Todd Energy 42 1924
Mangapehi Taranaki Clearwater Hydro 3.0 1998
Mangorei Taranaki TrustPower 4.5 1906, 1931
Maraetai near Mangakino, Waikato

38°21′09″S 175°44′38″E

Waikato River 10 Mighty River Power 360 1954, 1971
Matahina east of Kawerau, Bay of Plenty

38°06′54″S 176°48′52″E

Rangataiki River TrustPower 72 1967
McKays Creek West Coast TrustPower 1.1 1931
Mokauiti/Wairere Central North Island King Country Energy 7.0 1925, 1938, 1963
Monowai Southland Pioneer Generation 6.6 1926
Montalto Canterbury TrustPower 1.8 1982 1.1 MW during irrigation season [3]
Motukawa Taranaki TrustPower 5.0 1927-1938
Ohakuri between Taupo and Tokoroa, Waikato

38°24′30″S 176°5′22″E

Waikato River 4 Mighty River Power 112 1962
Ohau A west of Twizel, Canterbury

44°15′52″S 170°1′56″E

Waitaki River 4 Meridian Energy 264 1980 [2]
Ohau B east of Twizel, Canterbury

44°17′58″S 170°6′44″E

Waitaki River 4 Meridian Energy 212 1984 [2]
Ohau C east of Twizel, Canterbury

44°20′31″S 170°10′56″E

Waitaki River 4 Meridian Energy 212 1985 [2]
Paerau Central Otago Paerau Gorge TrustPower 10 1984
Patea north of Patea, Taranaki

39°32′46″S 174°34′13″E

3 TrustPower 30.7 1984
Patearoa Central Otago Patearoa TrustPower 2.3 1984
Piriaka/Kuratau Central North Island

38°52′46″S 175°44′08″E

King Country Energy 8.0 1924
Piripaua Lake Waikaremoana, Hawke’s Bay

38°50′21″S 177°10′05″E

Waikaremoana Genesis Energy 42 1943
Rangipo south of Turangi, Waikato

39°09′12″S 175°50′12″E

Tongariro 2 Genesis Energy 120 1983
Roaring Meg west of Cromwell, Otago Pioneer Generation 4.3 1936
Roxburgh near Roxburgh, Otago

45°28′33″S 169°19′21″E

Clutha River 8 Contact Energy 320 1956
Ruahihi west of Tauranga Kaimai TrustPower 20 1981
Tekapo A Lake Tekapo, Canterbury

44°00′50″S 170°27′38″E

Waitaki River 1 Genesis Energy 25 1951 [2]
Tekapo B Lake Pukaki, Canterbury

44°07′21″S 170°12′43″E

Waitaki River 2 Genesis Energy 160 1977 [2]
Teviot east of Roxburgh, Otago Teviot Pioneer Generation 10.5 1983
Tokaanu Tokaanu, Waikato

38°58′52″S 175°46′06″E

Tongariro 4 Genesis Energy 240 1973
Tuai Lake Waikaremoana, Hawke’s Bay

38°48′25″S 177°09′03″E

Waikaremoana Genesis Energy 60 1929
Wahapo/Ōkārito Forks West Coast TrustPower 3.1 1960
Waihopai Nelson-Marlborough

39°09′12″S 175°50′12″E

TrustPower 2.4 1927
Waipapa north of Mangakino, Waikato

38°17′32″S 175°41′01″E

Waikato River Mighty River Power 51 1961
Waipori west of Dunedin Waipori River TrustPower 84 1907
Wairua Falls Northland

35°45′27″S 174°04′03″E

Wairua River Northpower 5 1916
Waitaki west of Kurow, Canterbury

44°41′23″S 170°25′34″E

Waitaki River 7 Meridian Energy 105 1935 [2]
Whakamaru south of Mangakino, Waikato

38°25.178′S175°48.493′E

Waikato River 4 Mighty River Power 100 1956
Wheao and Flaxy Kaingaroa, Bay of Plenty

38°38′00″S 176°34′41″E

3 TrustPower 26 1982

Source:[1]

Under construction

Name Location Scheme No. Turbines Operator Capacity (MW) Commissioning Notes
Amethyst[4][5] east of Harihari, West Coast Westpower / Harihari Hydro 6 2013

Fossil fuel power stations

Name Location Fuel(s) Type Operator Capacity (MW) Commissioned Notes
Auckland Hospital Grafton, Auckland Gas/Diesel cogeneration Auckland DHB / Meridian Energy 3.6 2005
Bream Bay Northland Diesel recip engine TrustPower 9 2011
Edgecumbe Edgecumbe, Bay of Plenty Gas cogeneration Bay of Plenty Energy 10 1996 Typhoon gas turbine plus HRSGsupplying power to grid and steam to adjacent dairy factory
Glenbrook Glenbrook, Auckland Coal/Gas waste heat Alinta 112 1997 Continuous rating 99 MW
Huntly 1-4 Huntly, Waikato

37°32′40″S175°09′01″E

Coal/Gas steam turbine Genesis Energy 1000 1983 Part of Huntly complex
Huntly 5 Huntly, Waikato

37°32′35″S175°08′57″E

Gas combined-cycle Genesis Energy 400 2007 Part of Huntly complex
Huntly 6 Huntly, Waikato

37°32′38″S175°08′53″E

Gas/Diesel open-cycle Genesis Energy 50 2004 Part of Huntly complex
Kapuni Kapuni, Taranaki Gas combined-cycle cogeneration Vector / Bay of Plenty Energy 25 1998
Kawerau (TPP) Kawerau, Bay of Plenty Gas cogeneration Tasman Pulp and Paper 37 1966
Kinleith Kinleith, Waikato Wood/Gas cogeneration Genesis Energy 40 1998
Mangahewa Taranaki Gas Todd Energy 9.0 2008
Marsden Diesel (Bream Bay) Northland Diesel Trustpower 9 2011 Caterpillar diesel units used as peaking plant to mitigate price peaks
McKee Taranaki Gas reciprocating Todd Energy 2.0 2008 Waste heat used to heat hot water for plant usage
McKee(turbine) Taranaki Gas open-cycle Todd Energy 100 2013
Otahuhu B Otahuhu, Auckland

36°57.072′S174°51.923′E

Gas combined cycle Contact Energy 380 2000
QE2 Park Queen Elizabeth II Park,Christchurch Diesel reciprocating engine Orion New Zealand 4 2011-2 4× 1MW diesel gensets installed to alleviate supply constraints in northeastern Christchurch following the February 2011 Christchurch earthquake
Southdown Southdown, Auckland

36°55′39″S174°49′38″E

Gas combined-cycle cogeneration Mighty River Power 170 1997
Stratford Stratford, Taranaki

39°19′56″S174°19′8″E

Gas open/combined-cycle Contact Energy 585 1998, 2010 1 x combined cycle Alstom GT26A/B (385MW), 2 x open cycle GE LMS100 turbines used for peak supply (200MW)
Te Rapa Te Rapa, Hamilton

37°42′59″S175°13′0″E

Gas cogeneration Contact Energy 44 1999 MS6001B gas turbine plus HRSGsupplying power to the grid and steam to adjacent dairy factory
Wellington Hospital Newtown, Wellington Gas/Oil cogeneration Capital & Coast DHB / Vector / Meridian Energy 8 1981
Whareroa near Hawera, Taranaki Gas combined-cycle cogeneration Fonterra /Todd Energy 69.6 1996
Whirinaki Whirinaki, Hawke’s Bay

39°22′34″S176°53′36″E

Diesel open-cycle Contact Energy 155 2004

Source:[1]

Wind farms

Name Location No. Turbines Operator Capacity (MW) Commissioned Notes
Brooklyn Wellington 1 Meridian Energy 0.2 1993
Gebbies Pass Christchurch 1 Windflow Technology 0.5 2003
Hau Nui southeast of Martinborough,Wellington

41°21′42″S 175°29′2″E

15 Genesis Energy 8.7 1996, 2004
Horseshoe Bend east of Roxburgh, Otago 3 Pioneer Generation 2.3 2009
Lulworth[6] south of Ward, Marlborough 4 Energy 3 1.0 2011
Mahinerangi Lake Mahinerangi, west of Dunedin

45°45′38″S 169°54′18″E

12 TrustPower 36 March 2011
Mt Stuart[7] between Milton and Lawrence, Otago

46°04′20″S 169°46′2″E

9 Pioneer Generation 7.7 December 2011
Southbridge South Canterbury 1 Energy 3 0.1 2005
Tararua Tararua Ranges, east of Palmerston North

40°20′46″S 175°46′48″E

134 TrustPower 161 1999, 2004, 2007
Te Apiti Ruahine Ranges, east of Palmerston North

40°17′46″S 175°48′30″E

55 Meridian Energy 91 2004
Te Rere Hau Tararua Ranges, east of Palmerston North

40°23′18″S 175°43′27″E

97 New Zealand Windfarms 48.5 2006, 2009, 2011
Te Uku near Raglan, Waikato

37°52′42″S 174°57′47″E

28 Meridian Energy 64.4 2011 part owned by WEL Networks [8]
Weld Cone Marlborough 1 Energy 3 0.8 2010
West Wind Makara, west of central Wellington

41°16′35″S 174°39′37″E

62 Meridian Energy 143 2009
White Hill near Mossburn, Southland

45°45′9″S 168°16′18″E

29 Meridian Energy 58 2007

Sources:[1][9]

Decommissioned power stations

Decommissioned hydroelectric power stations

Name Location Scheme No. Turbines Last Operator Capacity (MW) Commissioned Decommissioned Notes
Bullendale Queenstown Skippers Creek 2 Pelton wheels Phoenix Mine 0.04 1886 1907 First industrial generation in NZ
Okere Falls north-east of Rotorua Kaituna River NZ Government 0.2 1901 1936 First power station owned by government. Dismantled in 1941
Omanawa Falls south-east of Tauranga Mangapapa River Trust Power 0.75 1915, extended 1921 1990s First underground power station in New Zealand, built by Tauranga Borough Council. [10]
Horahora east of Cambridge, Waikato Waikato River State Hydro Department 10.3 1913 1947 Drowned by formation ofLake Karapiro
Reefton Reefton, West Coast Grey Electric Power Board < 1 1888 1949 Demolished
Wye Creek Otago-Southland Pioneer Generation 1.3 1936 2008 Mothballed after turbine/generator failure

Decommissioned thermal power stations

Name Location Fuel(s) Type Last Operator Capacity (MW) Commissioned Decommissioned Notes
Evans Bay near Kilbirnie, Wellington Coal steam turbine Wellington City Council 23 1924 1968 Demolished
Kings Wharf Central Auckland Coal steam turbine Auckland Harbour Board 10.5 1920 1968
Marsden A Marsden Point, Northland Oil ECNZ 240 1967 1997 Partially demolished
Marsden B Marsden Point, Northland Oil ECNZ 250 Mothballed 1978 without commissioning
Meremere Meremere, Waikato Coal steam turbine ECNZ 210 1958 1991 Partially demolished; now a waste recovery plant.
New Plymouth Port Taranaki, New Plymouth Gas / Oil steam turbine Contact Energy 600 1974 2008
Palmerston North Terrace End, Palmerston North Town Gas /Diesel reciprocating Palmerston North City Council 2 1924 1992 Now an electricity museum[11]
Springlands Old Renwick Road, Blenheim Diesel reciprocating Marlborough Lines 1.5 1930 2003 Preserved as functioning engineering heritage[12]
Te Awamutu Te Awamutu, Waikato Gas gas turbine Genesis Energy 54 1995 2007 Cogeneration

Proposed power stations

Name Type Operator Location Planned

Capacity (MW)

Year Status Notes
Amuri Hydro Meridian Energy North Canterbury 38 applied for consent [4]
Arnold (Dobson) Hydro TrustPower east of Greymouth, West Coast 46 consented [4]
Awhitu Wind TrustPower near Waiuku, Auckland 15 consented [4]
Belfast Diesel Orion New Zealand Belfast, Christchurch 11.5 consented [4]
Bromley Diesel Orion New Zealand Bromley, Christchurch 11.5 consented [4]
Castle Hill Wind Genesis Energy northeast of Masterton 860 consented [4][13]
Central Wind(Moawhango) Wind Meridian Energy between Taihape and Waiouru 130 consented [4]
Cook Strait Tidal Neptune Power near Wellington 1 consented [4]
Flat Hill Wind Energy 3 near Bluff, Southland 6.8 applied for consent [4]
Hauauru ma raki Wind Contact Energy Waikato coast 504 consented [4]
Hawea Gates Hydro Contact Energy near Wanaka, Otago 17 consented [4]
Hurunui Wind Meridian Energy North Canterbury 76 applied for consent [4][14]
Kaipara Tidal Crest Energy Kaipara Harbour, Northland 200 consented [4][15]
Kaiwera Downs Wind TrustPower south-east of Gore, Southland 240 consented [4]
Lake Coleridge Hydro TrustPower inland Canterbury 70 applied for consent [4]
Lake Pukaki Hydro Meridian Energy near Twizel, Canterbury 35 2015 or later consents granted [4][16]
Long Gully Wind Windflow Technologies Wellington 12.5 2015 or later consented [4]
Mahinerangi stage 2 Wind TrustPower Lake Mahinerangi, west of Dunedin 164 2012 consented [4]
Mill Creek Wind Meridian Energy Wellington 71 2015 or later consents under appeal
Mount Cass Wind MainPower Canterbury 69 2015 or later consented
Ngatamariki (stage 2) Geothermal Mighty River Power north of Taupo 28 2014 or later consented
North Bank Hydro Meridian Energy Waitaki River, Canterbury 210 2015 or later applied for consent
Otahuhu C Gas Contact Energy Otahuhu, Auckland 400 2015 or later consented
Puketoi Wind Mighty River Power Manawatu applied for consent[17]
Rakaia River Hydro Ashburton Community Water Trust Canterbury 16 2015 or later consented
Rodney Gas Genesis Energy near Helensville, Auckland 480 2013 consented
Rotoma Geothermal Rotoma No 1 Corporation Bay of Plenty 35 2015 or later applied for consent
Stockton Mine Hydro Solid Energy West Coast 35 2015 or later consent under appeal [18]
Stockton Plateau Hydro Hydro Developments West Coast 25 2015 or later consented
Tauhara 2 Geothermal Contact Energy north-east of Taupo 250 2015 or later consented[19]
Turitea Wind Mighty River Power near Palmerston North 180 2015 or later consented
Wairau Hydro TrustPower Nelson-Marlborough 70 2012 consent under appeal
Waitahora Wind Contact Energy east of Dannevirke, Manawatu-Wanganui 156 2013 consented[20]
Matiri Project Hydro New Zealand Energy West Coast 5 2015 or later applied for consent
Mokau Hydro King Country Energy Taranaki 10 2015 or later applied for consent
Puketiro Wind RES Wellington 150
Rototuna Wind Meridian Energy Northland 500
Slopedown Wind Genesis Energy east of Gore, Southland 150 [21][22]
Te Pohue Wind Meridian Energy inland Hawke’s Bay 225 2012 consented
Titiokura Wind Unison / Roaring 40s Hawkes Bay 48 2012 consented
Tory Channel Tidal Energy Pacifica Marlborough 10
Upper Kaituna Hydro Bay of Plenty Energy Bay of Plenty 14

Source:[4]

References

  1. “Generating station list as at September 2012” (xls). New Zealand Electricity Authority. Retrieved 2013-05-12.
  2. “Discover the Waitaki Hydro Scheme”. Meridian Energy Ltd. p. 5. Retrieved 23 June 2010.
  3. “Highbank/Montalto”. TrustPower. Retrieved 2009-03-29.
  4. “Generation projects update June 2012”. New Zealand Electricity Authority. June 2012. Retrieved 7 July 2012.
  5. “Harihari power scheme under way”. Greymouth Star. Retrieved 2011-02-09.
  6. “Lulworth”. New Zealand Wind Energy Association. Retrieved 14 December 2010.
  7. “Proposed Mt Stuart Windfarm Information”. Clutha District Council. Retrieved 2009-02-06.
  8. Holloway, Bruce (10 February 2011). “PM blown away by wind farm”. Waikato Times. Retrieved 13 February 2011.
  9. “Wind farms operating and under construction – New Zealand Wind Energy Association”. Retrieved 2011-02-10.
  10. “Omanawa Falls Power Station”. NZ Historic Places Trust.
  11. Palmerston North Electric Power Station Inc.
  12. Marlborough Lines – Diesel Station
  13. “Genesis planning massive windfarm”. NZ Herald. 30 August 2011. Retrieved 1 September 2011.
  14. Williams, David (2010-04-03). “$200m North Canty wind farm planned”. The Press.
  15. Thompson, Wayne (8 February 2011). “Tidal power station for Kaipara approved”. Retrieved 11 February 2011.
  16. Bruce, David (16 June 2011). “Pukaki hydro scheme gains resource consent”. Otago Daily Times.
  17. “Mighty River Power lodges application for wind development at Puketoi” (Press release). Mighty River Power. 3 August 2011.
  18. “Stockton Hydro Scheme”. Solid Energy.
  19. “Tauhara 2 gains consent”. Contact Energy. 22 December 2010. Retrieved 9 February 2010.
  20. “Green light for Contact wind farm”. 1 December 2010.
  21. “Slopedown Wind Farm”. Genesis Energy. Retrieved 14 February 2011.
  22. “Facts & figures”. Slopedown Wind Farm. Retrieved 2009-02-05.
  23. Wikipedia
February 20, 2014 / by / in
List of bridges in New Zealand

This is a list of notable bridges in New Zealand.

Bridge Picture Length (metres) Length (feet) Spans Region Built Comment
Auckland Harbour Bridge Auckland Harbour Bridge With Flag.jpg 1,020 3,350 Waitemata Harbour inAuckland Auckland Region 1959 Road (motorway) bridge
Balclutha Road Bridge Balclutha Bridge over the Clutha River.jpg 244 3,350 Clutha River at Balclutha Otago Region 1935 Road bridge
City to Sea Bridge City to Sea Bridge.jpg Jervois Quay

(from Civic Square to the Lagoon)

Wellington Region 1994 Pedestrian bridge
Fairfield Bridge Fairfield Bridge7.JPG 139 456 Waikato River at Hamilton Waikato Region 1937 Road bridge, pedestrian bridge
Grafton Bridge Grafton Bridge Panorama Auckland.jpg 97.6 320 Grafton Gully in Auckland Auckland Region 1910 Road bridge, bus bridge (Central Connector)
Hamish Hay Bridge[1] Hamish Hay Bridge, Christchurch, NZ 1.jpg Avon River Canterbury Region 1864 Pedestrian / cycle bridge in Victoria Square (road closed in 1989)
Kopu Bridge Old Kopu Bridge Looking Eastwards.jpg 463 1,519 Waihou River near Thames Waikato Region 1928 (first)

2011 (second)

Road bridge
Manukau Harbour Crossing Mangere Bridge From Onehunga.jpg Manukau Harbour south ofOnehunga, Auckland Auckland Region 1875 (first, since demolished)

1915 (second, since limited to walking/cycling)

1983 (third, motorway)

2010 (duplication of motorway)

Road (motorway) bridge, with separate footbridge/cycleway
Maungatapu Bridge 316 1,037 Tauranga Harbour inTauranga Bay of Plenty Region 1959 Road Bridge
Mohaka Viaduct Mohaka viaduct from road bridge.jpg 276.8 908 Mohaka River nearRaupunga NorthernHawke’s Bay 1930 – 1937 Rail bridge
Newmarket Viaduct Newmarket Viaduct Old Alignment.jpg 700 2,300 Broadway (street) / and valley in Newmarket Auckland Region 1966 Road (motorway) bridge
Onepoto Bridge 46 151 Local creek / estuary in Auckland Auckland Region Pedestrian / cycle bridge
Opawa River Bridge Opawa River at Blenheim Marlborough Region 1869 (first, since collapsed)

1917 (second)

Road bridge
Tauranga Harbour Bridge 466 1,529 Tauranga Harbour inTauranga Bay of Plenty Region 1988 (first)

2009 (duplication)

Road bridge
Upper Harbour Bridge Greenhithe Bridge With Memorials I.jpg 457 (first)

524 (second)

1,499 (first)

1,719(second)

Waitemata Harbour in Auckland Auckland Region 1970s (first)

2006 (duplication)

Road (motorway) bridge, with separate footbridge/cycleway
Victoria Park Viaduct Victoria Park Viaduct In 2007.jpg Victoria Park in Auckland Auckland Region Road (motorway) bridge
Wynyard Crossing Viaduct Harbour in Auckland Auckland Region 2011 Pedestrian / cycle bridge

February 17, 2014 / by / in
List of cemeteries in New Zealand

This is a list of some of the more notable cemeteries in New Zealand.

North Island

Auckland

  • Symonds Street Cemetery
  • Waikumete Cemetery

Wellington

  • Wellington City
    • Bolton Street Memorial Park
    • Karori Cemetery
    • Makara Cemetery
    • Mount Street Cemetery
    • also Johnsonville Methodist Cemetery, St John’s Anglican Church (Johnsonville), St Mary’s Anglican Church (Karori), Linden Cemetery, St Matthias (Makara), Holy Trinity Anglican Church (Ohariu Valley), Ohariu Valley Catholic Cemetery, Tawa Anglican Churchyard.
  • Hutt City
    • Taita Cemetery
    • also Christ Church (Taitā), Wesleyan Cemetery (Memorial in Bridge Street, Lower Hutt), Knox Presbyterian Church (Lower Hutt), Korokoro Catholic Cemetery, Owhiti Maori Cemetery (Seaview), St James Anglican Church (Lower Hutt), Te Puni Cemetery (Petone), Wainuiomata Methodist Church, Somes Island Cemetery, Waiwhetu Marae.
  • Upper Hutt City
    • Akatarawa Cemetery
    • also St John’s Anglican Churchyard (Trentham), St Joseph’s Catholic Burial Ground, Wallaceville Cemetery.
  • Porirua City
    • Whenua Tapu Cemetery
    • also Porirua Cemetery, Pauatahanui Burial Ground, St Joseph’s Church Graveyard.

Elsewhere

  • Hamilton Park Cemetery, Hamilton
  • Park Island Cemetery, Napier

South Island

Christchurch

  • Addington Cemetery, Christchurch
  • Avonhead Cemetery
  • Barbadoes Street Cemetery, Christchurch’s oldest cemetery, located in the central city
  • Bromley Cemetery, Christchurch
  • Linwood Cemetery, Christchurch
  • Memorial Park Cemetery, Christchurch
  • Ruru Lawn Cemetery
  • St. Paul’s Cemetery, Christchurch
  • Waimairi Cemetery
  • Woolston Cemetery

Dunedin

  • Andersons Bay Cemetery
  • Arthur Street Cemetery, Dunedin’s first cemetery, on City Rise. All bodies later moved elsewhere
  • Dunedin Northern Cemetery
  • Dunedin Southern Cemetery

Elsewhere

  • Wakapuaka Cemetery, Nelson
  • Queenstown Lakes District: Albert Town, Arrowtown, Cardrona, Frankton, Glenorchy, Kingston, Makarora, Queenstown, Skippers Point, Wanaka, Lake Hawea.
  • Central Otago District: Alexandra, Clyde, Cromwell, Ranfurly, Naseby (Council); Blackstone Hill, Danseys Pass/Kyeburn Diggings, Drybread, Ettrick, Gimmerburn, Ida Valley/Moa Creek, Kyeburn-Kokonga/Swinburn, Kyeburn Diggings, Millers Flat, Omakau/Blacks, Roxburgh, St. Bathans Public and Church, St. Bathans Catholic, Tarras (Cemetery Trust); Hamiltons, Nevis (closed).
  • Clutha District: Balclutha, Fairfax, Kaitangata, Lawrence, Tapanui (urban); Port Molyneux, Romahapa, Taieri Beach, Waihola, Waikoikoi, Waipahi, Waipori, Waitahuna (rural); Clinton, Crookston, Owaka, Tuapeka (Cemetery Trust).
  • Southland District: Edendale, Lumsden, Wallacetown, Woodlands, Wyndham, Centre Hill, Otautau, Wairio, Wreys Bush, Dipton, East Winton, Winton, Lynwood, Halfmoon Bay, Riverton (Council); Athol, Balfour, Calcium, Forest Hill, Fortrose, Garston, Orepuki, Quarry Hills, Riversdale, Tuatapere, Waikaia, Waikawa (Cemetery Trust).
  • Gore District: Otaraia, Charlton Park, Gore, Mataura, Pukerau, Waikaka.
  • Invercargill City: Eastern, Saint John’s, Bluff, Green Point
February 17, 2014 / by / in
Glaciers of New Zealand

New Zealand contains many glaciers, mostly located near the Main Divide of the Southern Alps in the South Island. They are classed as mid-latitude mountain glaciers. There are eighteen small glaciers in the North Island on Mount Ruapehu.

An inventory of South Island glaciers during the 1980s indicated there were about 3,155 glaciers with an area of at least one hectare (2.5 acres). Approximately one sixth of these glaciers covered more than 10 hectares. These include:

  • Fox Glacier
  • Franz Josef Glacier
  • Hooker Glacier
  • Mueller Glacier
  • Murchison Glacier
  • Tasman Glacier
  • Volta Glacier

New Zealand’s territorial claim in Antarctica, the Ross Dependency, also contains many glaciers.

List of glaciers

Notable glaciers in New Zealand include:

  • Bonar Glacier, Mount Aspiring
  • Claussen Glacier
  • Douglas Glacier
  • Fox Glacier
  • Franz Josef Glacier
  • Grey Glacier
  • Godley Glacier
  • Hooker Glacier
  • Ivory Glacier
  • Lyell Glacier
  • Maud Glacier
  • Mount Ruapehu glaciers
  • Mueller Glacier
  • Murchison Glacier
  • Ramsay Glacier
  • Tasman Glacier
  • Therma Glacier, Mount Aspiring
  • Volta Glacier, Mount Aspiring

Retreat of glaciers

Tasman_GlacierThe Mueller, Hooker and Tasman glaciers have continued to retreat rapidly in recent years. Notice the larger terminal lakes, the retreat of the white ice (ice free of moraine cover), and the higher moraine walls due to ice thinning.

New Zealand glaciers have been retreating since 1890, with an acceleration of this retreat since 1920. Most of the glaciers have thinned measurably and have reduced in size, and the snow accumulation zones have risen in elevation during the 20th century. In the period 1971–75, Ivory Glacier receded 30 m (98 ft) from the glacial terminus, and about 26% of the surface area of the glacier was lost over the same period. Since 1980 numerous small glacial lakes were created behind the new terminal moraines of several of these glaciers. Glaciers such as Classen, Godley and Douglas now all have new glacial lakes below their terminal locations due to the glacial retreat over the past 20 years. Satellite imagery indicates that these lakes are continuing to expand. There has been significant and ongoing ice volume losses on the largest glaciers: the Tasman, Ivory, Classen, Mueller, Maud, Hooker, Grey, Godley, Ramsay, Murchison, Therma, Volta and Douglas Glaciers. The retreat of these glaciers has been marked by expanding proglacial lakes and terminus region thinning. The loss in volume from 1975–2005 is 11 percent of the total.

Several glaciers, notably the much-visited Fox and Franz Josef Glaciers on the West Coast, have periodically advanced, especially during the 1990s, but the scale of these advances is small when compared to 20th-century retreat. Both glaciers are currently more than 2.5 km (1.6 mi) shorter than a century ago. These large, rapidly flowing glaciers situated on steep slopes have been very reactive to small mass-balance changes. A few years of conditions favorable to glacier advance, such as more westerly winds and a resulting increase in snowfall, are rapidly echoed in a corresponding advance, followed by equally rapid retreat when those favorable conditions end. Hence glacier advance in a few locations is regarded as due to transient local weather conditions which brought more precipitation and cloudier, cooler summers since 2002.

Credit: Wikipedia

February 17, 2014 / by / in