Culture

Maori

Māori people

The Māori (Māori pronunciation: [ˈmaːɔɾi], /ˈmɑːʊəri/) are the indigenous Polynesian people of New Zealand. The Māori originated with settlers from eastern Polynesia, who arrived in New Zealand in several waves of canoe voyages at some time between 1250 and 1300 CE. Over several centuries in isolation, the Polynesian settlers developed a unique culture that became known as the “Māori”, with their own language, a rich mythology, distinctive crafts and performing arts. Early Māori formed tribal groups, based on eastern Polynesian social customs and organisation. Horticulture flourished using plants they introduced, and later a prominent warrior culture emerged.
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Prominent Māori, l. to r., top to bottom: Hone Heke and wife • Hinepare of Ngāti Kahungunu • Tukukino • Te Rangi Hīroa • Meri Te Tai Mangakahia • Apirana Ngata • Keisha Castle-Hughes • Winston Peters • Stephen Kearney

The arrival of Europeans to New Zealand starting from the 17th century brought enormous change to the Māori way of life. Māori people gradually adopted many aspects of Western society and culture. Initial relations between Māori and Europeans were largely amicable, and with the signing of the Treaty of Waitangi in 1840 the two cultures coexisted as part of a new British colony. Rising tensions over disputed land sales led to conflict in the 1860s. Social upheaval, decades of conflict and epidemics of introduced disease took a devastating toll on the Māori population, which went into a dramatic decline. But by the start of the 20th century the Māori population had begun to recover, and efforts were made to increase their standing in wider New Zealand society. Traditional Māori culture has enjoyed a revival, and a protest movement emerged in the 1960s advocating Māori issues.

In the 2013 census, there were approximately 600,000 people in New Zealand identifying as Māori, making up roughly 15% of the national population. They are the second-largest ethnic group in New Zealand, after European New Zealanders (“Pākehā”). In addition there are over 120,000 Māori living in Australia. The Māori language (known as Te Reo Māori) is spoken to some extent by about a fifth of all Māori, representing 3% of the total population, although many New Zealanders regularly use Māori words and expressions, such as “kia ora“, while speaking English. Māori are active in all spheres of New Zealand culture and society, with independent representation in areas such as media, politics and sport.

Disproportionate numbers of Māori face significant economic and social obstacles, with lower life expectancies and incomes compared with other New Zealand ethnic groups, in addition to higher levels of crime, health problems and educational under-achievement. Socioeconomic initiatives have been implemented aimed at closing the gap between Māori and other New Zealanders. Political redress for historical grievances is also ongoing.

Etymology

In the Māori language the word māori means “normal”, “natural” or “ordinary”. In legends and oral traditions, the word distinguished ordinary mortal human beings—tāngata māori—from deities and spirits (wairua); likewise wai māori denoted “fresh water” as opposed to salt water. There are cognate words in most Polynesian languages, all deriving from Proto-Polynesian *ma(a)qoli, which has the reconstructed meaning “true, real, genuine”.

Naming and self-naming

Early visitors from Europe to New Zealand generally referred to the inhabitants as “New Zealanders” or as “natives”, but Māori became the term used by Māori to describe themselves in a pan-tribal sense.

Māori people often use the term tangata whenua (literally, “people of the land”) to describe themselves in a way that emphasises their relationship with a particular area of land – a tribe may be the tangata whenua in one area, but not in another. The term can also refer to Māori as a whole in relation to New Zealand (Aotearoa) as a whole.

The Maori Purposes Act of 1947 required the use of the term “Māori” rather than “Native” in official usage, and the Department of Native Affairs became the Department of Māori Affairs. It is now Te Puni Kōkiri, or the Ministry for Māori Development.

Before 1974 ancestry determined the legal definition of “a Māori person”. For example, bloodlines determined whether a person should enrol on the general electoral roll or the separate Māori roll. In 1947 the authorities determined that one man, five-eighths Māori, had improperly voted in the general parliamentary electorate of Raglan. The Māori Affairs Amendment Act 1974 changed the definition to one of cultural self-identification. In matters involving money (for example scholarships or Waitangi Tribunal settlements), authorities generally require some demonstration of ancestry or cultural connection, but no minimum “blood” requirement exists.

History

Origins

350px-Polynesian_Migration.svgThe Māori settlement of New Zealand represents an end-point of a long chain of island hopping voyages in the South Pacific.

The most current reliable evidence strongly indicates that initial settlement of New Zealand occurred around 1280 CE at the end of the medieval warm period. Previous dating of some Kiore (Polynesian rat) bones at 50–150 CE has now been shown to have been unreliable; new samples of bone (and now also of unequivocally rat-gnawed woody seed cases) match the 1280 date of the earliest archaeological sites and the beginning of sustained deforestation by humans.

Māori oral history describes the arrival of ancestors from Hawaiki (the mythical homeland in tropical Polynesia), in large ocean-going waka. Migration accounts vary among tribes (iwi), whose members may identify with several waka in their genealogies (whakapapa). There is limited evidence of return, or attempted return voyages, from archaeological evidence in the Kermadec Islands.

Evidence from archaeology, linguistics, and physical anthropology indicates that the first settlers came from east Polynesia and became the Māori. Language evolution studies and mitochondrial DNA evidence suggest that most Pacific populations originated from Taiwanese aborigines around 5,200 years ago (suggesting before migration from the Asian or Chinese mainland), moving down through Southeast Asia and Indonesia.

Archaic period (1280-1500)

The earliest period of Māori settlement is known as the “Archaic”, “Moahunter” or “Colonisation” period. The eastern Polynesian ancestors of the Māori arrived in a forested land with abundant birdlife, including several now extinct moa species weighing from 20 to 250 kilograms (40 to 550 lb). Other species, also now extinct, included a swan, a goose and the giant Haast’s Eagle, which preyed upon the moa. Marine mammals, in particular seals, thronged the coasts, with coastal colonies much further north than today. At the Waitaki river mouth huge numbers of Moa bones estimated at 29,000 to 90,000 birds have been located. Further South, at the Shag River mouth at least 6,000 moa were slaughtered over a relatively short period.

Archaeology has shown that the Otago Region was the node of Māori cultural development during this time, and the majority of archaic settlements were on or within 10 km (6 mi) of the coast, though it was common to establish small temporary camps far inland. Settlements ranged in size from 40 people (e.g., Palliser Bay in Wellington) to 300–400 people, with 40 buildings (e.g., Shag River (Waihemo)). The best known and most extensively studied Archaic site is at Wairau Bar in the South Island. The site is similar to eastern Polynesian nucleated villages. Radio carbon dating shows it was occupied from about 1288 to 1300. Due to tectonic forces, some of the Wairau Bar site is now underwater. Work on the Wairau Bar skeletons in 2010 showed that life expectancy was very short, the oldest skeleton being 39 and most people dying in their 20s. Most of the adults showed signs of dietary or infection stress. Anaemia and arthritis were common. Infections such as TB may have been present as the symptoms were present in several skeletons. On average the adults were taller than other South Pacific people at 175 cm for males and 161 cm for females.

The Archaic period is remarkable for the lack of weapons and fortifications so typical of the later “Classic” Māori, and for its distinctive “reel necklaces”. From this period onward around 32 species of birds became extinct, either through over-predation by humans and the kiore and kurī they introduced, repeated burning of the grassland, or climate cooling, which appears to have occurred from about 1400–1450. Early Māori enjoyed a rich, varied diet of birds, fish, seals and shellfish. Moa were also an important source of meat, and the various species were probably wiped out within 100 years according to Professor Allan Cooper.

Work by Helen Leach shows that Māori were using about 36 different food plants, though many required detoxification and long periods (12–24 hours) of cooking. D. Sutton’s research on early Māori fertility found that first pregnancy occurred at about 20 years and the mean number of births was low, compared with other neolithic societies. The low number of births may have been due to the very low average life expectancy of 31–32 years. Analysis of skeletons at Wairau bar showed signs of a hard life with many having broken bones that had healed, suggesting a balanced diet and a supportive community that had the resources to support severely injured family members.

Classic period (1500-1642)

250px-Model_Of_Maori_Pa_On_HeadlandModel of a fortified pā, built on a headland. Fortified pā proliferated as competition and warfare increased among a growing population.

The cooling of the climate, confirmed by a detailed tree ring study near Hokitika, shows a significant, sudden and long-lasting cooler period from 1500. This coincided with a series of massive earthquakes in the South Island Alpine fault, a major earthquake in 1460 in the Wellington area, tsunamis that destroyed many coastal settlements, and the extinction of the moa and other food species. These were likely factors that led to sweeping changes to the Māori culture, which developed into the most well-known “Classic” period that was in place when European contact was made.

This period is characterised by finely made pounamu weapons and ornaments, elaborately carved canoes – a tradition that was later extended to and continued in elaborately carved meeting houses (wharenui), and a fierce warrior culture, with fortified hillforts known as , frequent cannibalism and some of the largest war canoes ever built.

Around 1500 CE a group of Māori migrated east to the Chatham Islands, where, by adapting to the local climate and the availability of resources, they developed a culture known as the “Moriori” – related to but distinct from Māori culture in mainland New Zealand. A notable feature of the Moriori culture, an emphasis on pacifism, proved disastrous when a party of invading North Taranaki Māori arrived in 1835. Few of the estimated Moriori population of 2,000 survived.

The largest battle ever fought in New Zealand, the Battle of Hingakaka, occurred around 1780–90, south of Ohaupo on a ridge near Lake Ngaroto. The battle was fought between about 7,000 warriors from a Taranaki-led force and a much smaller Waikato force under the leadership of Te Rauangaanga.

Early European contact (1642-1840)

Gilsemans_1642The first European impression of Māori, at Murderers’ Bay in Abel Tasman’s travel journal (1642).

European settlement of New Zealand occurred in relatively recent historical times. New Zealand historian Michael King in The Penguin History Of New Zealand describes the Māori as “the last major human community on earth untouched and unaffected by the wider world.” Early European explorers, including Abel Tasman (who arrived in 1642) and Captain James Cook (who first visited in 1769), recorded their impressions of Māori. Initial contact between Māori and Europeans proved problematic, sometimes fatal, with several accounts of Europeans being cannibalised.

From the 1780s, Māori encountered European and American sealers and whalers; some Māori crewed on the foreign ships with many crewing on whaling and sealing ships in New Zealand waters. Some of the South Island crews were almost totally Māori. Between 1800 and 1820 there were 65 sealing voyages and 106 whaling voyages to New Zealand, mainly from Britain and Australia. A trickle of escaped convicts from Australia and deserters from visiting ships, as well as early Christian missionaries, also exposed the indigenous population to outside influences. In the Boyd Massacre in 1809, Māori took hostage and killed 66 members of the crew and passengers in apparent revenge for the whipping of the son of a Māori chief by the captain. There were accounts of cannibalism, and this episode caused shipping companies and missionaries to be wary, and significantly reduced contact between Europeans and Māori for several years.

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1846: Hone Heke, holding a musket, with his wife Hariata and his uncle Kawiti, holding a taiaha.

By 1830, estimates placed the number of Europeans living among the Māori as high as 2,000. The runaways had varying status-levels within Māori society, ranging from slaves to high-ranking advisors. Some runaways remained little more than prisoners, while others abandoned European culture and identified as Māori. These Europeans “gone native” became known as Pākehā Māori. Many Māori valued them as a means to the acquisition of European knowledge and technology, particularly firearms. When Pomare led a war-party against Titore in 1838, he had 131 Europeans among his warriors. Frederick Edward Maning, an early settler, wrote two lively accounts of life in these times, which have become classics of New Zealand literature: Old New Zealand and History of the War in the North of New Zealand against the Chief Heke.

The Māori language was first written down by Thomas Kendall in 1815 followed 5 years later by A Grammar and Vocabulary of the New Zealand Language, compiled by Professor Samuel Lee helped by Kendall, Waikato and Hongi Hika, on a visit to England in 1820. Māori were quick to adopt literacy, taught by missionaries. Between February 1835 and January 1840 William Colenso printed 74,000 Māori language booklets from his press at Pahia. In 1843 the government distributed free gazettes to Māori called Ko Te Karere O Nui Tireni. It contained information about law, crimes, explanations and remarks about European customs.

During the period from 1805 to 1840 the acquisition of muskets by tribes in close contact with European visitors upset the balance of power among Māori tribes, leading to a period of bloody inter-tribal warfare, known as the Musket Wars, which resulted in the decimation of several tribes and the driving of others from their traditional territory. During the Musket wars the Māori population it has been estimated that the total number dropped from about 100,000 in 1800 to between 50,000 and 80,000 at the end of the wars in 1843. The 1856-57 census of Māori which gives a figure of 56,049 suggests the lower number of around 50,000 is perhaps more accurate, as the 1850s was a decade of relative stability and Māori economic growth. The picture is confused by uncertainty over how or if Pakeha Māori were counted and the severe dislocation of many of the less powerful iwi and hapu during the wars. The smashing of normal society by the four decade wars and the driving of peaceful tribes from their productive turangawaewae, such as the Moriori in the Chatham Islands by invading forces from North Taranaki, had a catastrophic effect on these defeated tribes. European diseases such as influenza and measles killed an unknown number of Māori: estimates vary between ten and fifty percent. Spread of epidemics was caused by a huge influx of European settlers in the 1870s who in many cases did not have rigorous heath checks.

Te Rangi Hīroa documents an epidemic caused by a respiratory disease that Māori called rewharewha. It “decimated” populations in the early 19th Century and “spread with extraordinary virulence throughout the North Island and even to the South… Measles, typhoid, scarlet fever, whooping cough and almost everything, except plague and sleeping sickness, have taken their toll of Maori dead.”

Economic changes also took a toll: migration into unhealthy swamplands to produce and export flax led to further mortality.

British Treaty with the people of New Zealand

Meri Te Tai Mangakāhia, a member of the Kotahitanga movement in the 1890s, who argued that women should have equal voting rights in the Māori Parliament

With increasing Christian missionary activity and growing European settlement in the 1830s, and with growing lawlessness in New Zealand, the British Crown acceded to repeated requests from missionaries and some chiefs to intervene. Some freewheeling escaped convicts and seamen, as well as gunrunners and Americans actively worked against the British government by spreading rumours amongst Māori that the government would oppress and mistreat them. Tamati Waka Nene a pro government chief was angry that the government had not taken active steps to stop gunrunners selling weapons to rebels in Hokianga. As well, the French were showing imminent interest in acquiring New Zealand for Paris.It was believed that the French catholic missionaries were spreading anti British feeling. All of the chiefs who spoke against the Treaty on 5 February 1840 were catholic.Years after the treaty was signed Pompallier admitted that all the catholic chiefs and especially Rewa, had consulted him for advice. Ultimately, Queen Victoria sent Royal Navy Captain William Hobson with instructions to negotiate a treaty between Britain and the people of New Zealand.

Soon after arrival in New Zealand in February 1840, Hobson negotiated a treaty with North Island chiefs, later to become known as the Treaty of Waitangi. In the end, 500 tribal chiefs and a small number of Europeans signed the Treaty, while some chiefs — such as Te Wherowhero in Waikato, and Te Kani-a-Takirau from the east coast of the North Island — refused to sign. The Treaty gave Māori the rights of British subjects and guaranteed Māori property rights and tribal autonomy, in return for accepting British sovereignty.

Considerable dispute continues over aspects of the Treaty of Waitangi. The original treaty written mainly by Busby and translated into Māori by Henry Williams who was moderately proficient in Māori and his son William who was more skilled. They were handicapped by their imperfect Māori and the lack of exactly similar words in Māori. At Waitangi the chiefs signed the Māori translation.

Despite the different understandings of the treaty, relations between Māori and Europeans during the early colonial period were largely peaceful. Many Māori groups set up substantial businesses, supplying food and other products for domestic and overseas markets. Among the early European settlers who learnt the Māori language and recorded Māori mythology, George Grey, Governor of New Zealand from 1845–1855 and 1861–1868, stands out.

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A portrait of Māori man, by Gottfried Lindauer, 1882

However, rising tensions over disputed land purchases and attempts by Māori in the Waikato to establish what some saw as a rival to the British system of royalty led to the New Zealand wars in the 1860s. These conflicts started when rebel Māori attacked isolated settlers in Taranaki but were fought mainly between Crown troops –from both Britain and new regiments raised in Australia, aided by settlers and some allied Māori (known as kupapa) – and numerous Māori groups opposed to the disputed land sales including some Waikato Māori.

While these conflicts resulted in few Māori (compared to the earlier Musket wars) or European deaths, the colonial government confiscated tracts of tribal land as punishment for what were called rebellions, in some cases taking land from tribes that had taken no part in the war, although this was almost immediately returned. Some of the confiscated land was returned to both kupapa and “rebel” Māori. Several minor conflicts also arose after the wars, including the incident at Parihaka in 1881 and the Dog Tax War from 1897–98.

The Native Land Acts of 1862 and 1865 established the Native Land Court, which had the purpose of transferring Māori land from communal ownership into individual title. Māori land under individual title became available to be sold to the colonial government or to settlers in private sales. Between 1840 and 1890 Māori sold 95 percent of their land (63,000,000 of 66,000,000 acres (270,000 km2) in 1890). In total 4% of this was confiscated land, although about a quarter of this was returned. 300,000 acres was also returned to Kupapa Māori mainly in the lower Waikato River Basin area. Individual Māori titleholders received considerable capital from these land sales, with some lower Waikato Chiefs being given a 1000 pounds each. Disputes later arose over whether or not promised compensation in some sales was fully delivered. Some claim that later, the selling off of Māori land and the lack of appropriate skills hampered Māori participation in growing the New Zealand economy, eventually diminishing the capacity of many Māori to sustain themselves. The Māori MP Henare Kaihau, from Waiuku, who was executive head of the King Movement worked alongside King Mahuta to sell land to the government. At that time the king sold 185,000 acres per year. In 1910 the Māori Land Conference at Waihi discussed selling a further 600,000 acres. King Mahuta had been successful in getting restitution for some blocks of land previously confiscated and these were returned to the King in his name. Henare Kaihau invested all the money- 50,000 pounds- in an Auckland land company which collapsed and all 50,000 pounds of the kingitanga money was lost.

In 1884 King Tāwhiao withdrew money from the kingitanga bank, Te Peeke o Aotearoa to travel to London to see Queen Victoria to try and persuade her to honour the Treaty between their peoples. However he did not get beyond the Secretary of State for the Colonies, who said it was a New Zealand problem. Returning to New Zealand the Premier, Robert Stout, insisted that all events happening before 1863 were the responsibility of the Imperial Government.

By 1891 Māori comprised just 10% of the population but still owned 17% of the land, although much of it was of poor quality.

Decline and revival

Sir Apirana Ngata became instrumental in the revival of traditional arts such as kapa haka and carving.

By the late 19th century a widespread belief existed amongst both Pākehā and Māori that the Māori population would cease to exist as a separate race or culture and become assimilated into the European population. In 1840, New Zealand had a Māori population of about 50,000 to 70,000 and only about 2,000 Europeans. By 1860 it was estimated at 50,000. The Māori population had declined to 37,520 in the 1871 census, although Te Rangi Hīroa (Sir Peter Buck) believed this figure was too low. The figure was 42,113 in the 1896 census, by which time Europeans numbered more than 700,000. Professor Ian Poole noticed that as late as 1890 40% of all female children were dead before they were one, a much higher rate than for males.

The decline of the Māori population did not continue, and levels recovered. By 1936 the Māori figure was 82,326, although the sudden rise in the 1930s was probably due to the introduction of the family benefit − only payable when a birth was registered, according to Professor Poole. Despite a substantial level of intermarriage between the Māori and European populations, many Māori retained their cultural identity. A number of discourses developed as to the meaning of “Māori” and to who counted as Māori or not.

The parliament instituted 4 Māori seats in 1867, giving all Māori men universal suffrage 12 years ahead of their European New Zealand counterparts – who until the 1879 general elections needed to be landowners. New Zealand was thus the first neo-European nation in the world to give the vote to its indigenous people, but while the seats did increase Māori participation in politics, the relative size of the Māori population of the time vis à vis Pākehā would have warranted approximately 15 seats, although Māori have the option of voting in either Māori or general electorates giving them a choice.

From the late 19th century, successful Māori politicians such as James Carroll, Apirana Ngata, Te Rangi Hīroa and Maui Pomare, showing skill in the arts of Pākehā politics; at one point Carroll became Acting Prime Minister. The group, known as the Young Māori Party, cut across voting-blocs in Parliament and aimed to revitalise the Māori people after the devastation of the previous century. For them this involved assimilation – Māori adopting European ways of life such as Western medicine and education, especially the learning of English. However, Ngata in particular also wished to preserve traditional Māori culture, especially the arts. Ngata acted as a major force behind the revival of arts such as kapa haka and carving. He also enacted a programme of land development which helped many iwi retain and develop their land. Ngata became very close to Te Puea the Waikato kingite leader who was supported by the government in her attempt to improve living conditions for Waikato. Ngata transferred four blocks of land to Te Puea and her husband and arranged extensive government grants and loans. Ngata sacked the pakeha farm development officer and replaced him with Te Puea. He then arranged for her to have car to travel around the various farms.Te Puea’s husband was also given a large farm at Tikitere near Rotorua. The public, media and parliament became alarmed at the flow of funds from government to Te Puea during the recession. A Royal Commission was held in 1934 that found Ngata guilty of maladministration and misappropriation of funds to the value of 500,000 pounds. Ngata was forced to resign.

During World War One, a Māori pioneer force was taken to Egypt but quickly was turned into a successful combat infantry battalion and in the last years of the war was known as the Māori battalion. The battalion mainly comprised Arawa, Ngati Porou, NgaPuhi and later many Cook Islanders. The Waikato and Taranaki tribes refused to enlist or be conscripted, although the Maniapoto tribe, which had been at the heart of the 1863 Māori rebellion, supplied many soldiers. The leader of the Māori king movement during WW1, Te Puea, still harbouring grievances over their defeat and loss of land in 1863, worked covertly to undermine the government’s attempts to unify Māori behind the war. Her brother was one of many Waikato conscripts arrested and jailed after refusing to serve their country. The actions of Te Puea lead to Waikato tribes being ostracized to some extent by the government after the war. Te Puea’s stand caused huge difficulties for Waikato Māori MP Maui Pomare who was an avid supporter of Māori involvement in WW1.

Māori were badly hit by the 1918 influenza epidemic when the Māori battalion returned from the Western Front. The death rate from influenza for Māori was 4.5 times higher than for Pakeha. Many Māori, especially in the Waikato, were very reluctant to visit a doctor and only went to a hospital when the patient was nearly dead. To cope with isolation, Waikato Māori, under Te Puea’s leadership, increasingly returned to the old Pai Marire (Hau hau) cult of the 1860s.

Until 1893, 53 years after the Treaty of Waitangi, Māori did not pay tax on land holdings. In 1893 a very light tax was payable only on leasehold land and it was not till 1917 that Māori were required to pay a heavier tax equal to half that paid by other New Zealanders.

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Whina Cooper leads the Māori Land March through Hamilton in 1975, seeking redress for historical grievances.

During WW2 the government decided to exempt Māori from the conscription that applied to other citizens in World War II, but Māori volunteered in large numbers, forming the 28th or Māori Battalion, which performed creditably, notably in Crete, North Africa and Italy. Altogether 16,000 Māori took part in the war. 3,600 served in the Māori Battalion, the remainder serving in artillery, pioneers, home guard, infantry, airforce, and navy. 204,000 New Zealanders served during WW2. Māori, including Cook Islanders, made up 12% of the total force.

Many Māori migrated to larger rural towns and cities during the Depression and post-WWII periods in search of employment, leaving rural communities depleted and disconnecting many urban Māori from their traditional ways of life. Yet while standards of living improved among Māori during this time, they continued to lag behind Pākehā in areas such as health, income, skilled employment and access to higher levels of education. Māori leaders and government policymakers alike struggled to deal with social issues stemming from increased urban migration, including a shortage of housing and jobs, and a rise in urban crime, poverty and health problems.

Recent history

Since the 1960s, Māoridom has undergone a cultural revival concurrent with a protest movement. Government recognition of the growing political power of Māori and political activism have led to limited redress for confiscation of land and for the violation of other property rights. The Crown set up the Waitangi Tribunal, a body with the powers of a Commission of Enquiry, to investigate and make recommendations on such issues, but it cannot make binding rulings. Indeed, the Government need not accept the findings of the Waitangi Tribunal, and has rejected some of them.

A Māori chief with tattoos (moko) seen by James Cook and his crew.

Since 1976, people of Māori descent choose to enroll on either the general or Māori roll, and vote in either the Māori only or general electorates but not both. After the 1993 introduction of the MMP electoral system the number of electorates floats, meaning that the electoral population of a Māori seat, (there are currently seven), can remain roughly equivalent to that of a general seat.

During the 1990s and 2000s, the government negotiated with Māori to provide redress for breaches by the Crown of the guarantees set out in the Treaty of Waitangi in 1840. By 2006 the government had provided over NZ$900 million in settlements, much of it in the form of land deals. The largest settlement, signed on 25 June 2008 with seven Māori iwi, transferred nine large tracts of forested land to Māori control. As a result of the redress paid to many iwi, Māori now have significant interests in the fishing and forestry industries. There is a growing Māori leadership who see the treaty settlements as a platform for economic development.

Despite a growing acceptance of Māori culture in wider New Zealand society, the settlements have courted controversy: some Māori have complained that the settlements occur at a level of between 1 and 2.5 cents on the dollar of the value of the confiscated lands; conversely, some non-Māori denounce the settlements and socioeconomic initiaves as amounting to race-based preferential treatment. Both of these sentiments were expressed during the New Zealand foreshore and seabed controversy in 2004.

Culture

Traditional culture

The ancestors of the Māori arrived from eastern Polynesia during the 13th century, bringing with them Polynesian cultural customs and beliefs. Early European researchers, such as Julius von Haast, a geologist, incorrectly interpreted archaeological remains as belonging to a pre-Māori Paleolithic people; later researchers, notably Percy Smith, magnified such theories into an elaborate scenario with a series of sharply-defined cultural stages which had Māori arriving in a Great Fleet in 1350 CE and replacing the so-called “moa-hunter” culture with a “classical Māori” culture based on horticulture. The development of Māori material culture has been similarly delineated by the Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa into “cultural periods”, from the earlier “Ngā Kakano” stage to the later “Te Tipunga” period, before the “Classic” period of Māori history.

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Late 20th-century carving depicting the mythological navigator Kupe fighting two sea creatures.

However, the archaeological record indicates a gradual evolution of a neolithic culture that varied in pace and extent according to local resources and conditions. In the course of a few centuries, the growing population led to competition for resources and an increase in warfare. The archaeological record reveals an increased frequency of fortified pā, although debate continues about the amount of conflict. Various systems arose which aimed to conserve resources; most of these, such as tapu and rāhui, used religious or supernatural threats to discourage people from taking species at particular seasons or from specified areas.

Warfare between tribes was common, generally over land conflicts or to restore mana. Fighting was carried out between subtribes (hapū). Although not practised during times of peace, Māori would sometimes eat their conquered enemies. As Māori continued in geographic isolation, performing arts such as the haka developed from their Polynesian roots, as did carving and weaving. Regional dialects arose, with differences in vocabulary and in the pronunciation of some words. In 1819 two young northern chiefs, Tuai and Titere, who had learnt to speak and write English, went to London, where they met the language expert Samuel Lee. They stayed with a school teacher, Hall, who they told that even in Northern New Zealand there were “different languages and dialects”. The language retained enough similarities to other Eastern Polynesian languages, to the point where a Tahitian chief on James Cook’s first voyage in the region acted as an interpreter between Māori and the crew of the Endeavour.

Belief and religion

Main articles: Māori mythology and Māori religion

Traditional Māori beliefs have their origins in Polynesian culture. Many stories from Māori mythology are analogous with stories across the Pacific Ocean. Polynesian concepts such as tapu (sacred), noa (non-sacred), mana (authority/prestige) and wairua (spirit) governed everyday Māori living. These practices remained until the arrival of Europeans, when much of Māori religion and mythology was supplanted by Christianity. Today, Māori “tend to be followers of Presbyterianism, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormons), or Māori Christian groups such as Rātana and Ringatū”, but with Catholic, Anglican and Methodist groupings also prominent. There is also a very small community of Māori Muslims.

Performing arts

Kapa haka (literally “haka team”) is a traditional Māori performance art, encompassing many forms, that is still popular today. It includes haka (posture dance), poi (dance accompanied by song and rhythmic movements of the poi, a light ball on a string), waiata-ā-ringa (action songs) and waiata koroua (traditional chants). From the early 20th century kapa haka concert parties began touring overseas.

Since 1972 there has been a regular competition, the Te Matatini National Festival, organised by the Aotearoa Traditional Māori Performing Arts Society. Māori from different regions send representative groups to compete in the biannual competition. There are also kapa haka groups in schools, tertiary institutions and workplaces. It is also performed at tourist venues across the country.

Literature and media

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A young man performs in a kapa haka group at a Rotorua tourist venue.

Like other cultures, oral folklore was used by Māori to preserve their stories and beliefs across many centuries. In the 19th century, European-style literacy was brought to the Māori, which led to Māori history documentation in books, novels and later television. Māori language use began to decline in the 20th century with English as the language through which Māori literature became widespread.

Notable Māori novelists include Patricia Grace, Witi Ihimaera and Alan Duff. Once Were Warriors, a 1994 film adapted from a 1990 novel of the same name by Alan Duff, brought the plight of some urban Māori to a wide audience. It was the highest-grossing film in New Zealand until 2006, and received international acclaim, winning several international film prizes. While some Māori feared that viewers would consider the violent male characters an accurate portrayal of Māori men, most critics praised it as exposing the raw side of domestic violence. Some Māori opinion, particularly feminist, welcomed the debate on domestic violence that the film enabled.

Māori actors and actresses are present in many of Hollywood’s productions for being able to portray Asians, Latin Americans and Arabs because of their resemblance. They are in films like Whale Rider, Star Wars: Revenge of the Sith, The Matrix, King Kong, The River Queen, The Lord of The Rings, Rapa Nui, and others, and famous television series like Xena: Warrior Princess, Hercules: The Legendary Journeys, The Lost World and Spartacus: Blood and Sand. Famous Māori actors and actresses include Temuera Morrison, Cliff Curtis, Lawrence Makoare, Manu Benet and Keisha Castle-Hughes.

Sport

Māori participate fully in New Zealand’s sporting culture. The national rugby union, rugby league and netball teams have featured many Māori players. There are also Māori rugby union, rugby league and cricket representative teams that play in international competitions. Ki-o-rahi and tapawai are two sports of Māori origin. Ki-o-rahi got an unexpected boost when McDonalds chose it to represent New Zealand. Waka ama (outrigger canoeing) is also popular with Māori.

Language

Māori language

From about 1890, Māori MPs realised the importance of English literacy to Māori and insisted that all Māori children be taught in English. Missionaries, who still ran many Māori schools, had been teaching exclusively in Māori but the Māori MPs insisted this stop. However attendance at school for many Māori was intermittent.The Māori language, also known as te reo Māori (pronounced [ˈmaːoɾi, te ˈɾeo ˈmaːoɾi]) or simply te reo (“the language”), has the status of an official language. Linguists classify it within the Eastern Polynesian languages as being closely related to Cook Islands Māori, Tuamotuan and Tahitian; somewhat less closely to Hawaiian and Marquesan; and more distantly to the languages of Western Polynesia, including Samoan, Tokelauan, Niuean and Tongan. Before European contact Māori did not have a written language and “important information such as whakapapa was memorised and passed down verbally through the generations”. Māori were familiar with the concept of maps and when interacting with missionaries in 1815 could draw accurate maps of their rohe, onto paper, that were the equal of European maps. Missionaries surmised that Māori had traditionally drawn maps on sand or other natural material.

In many areas of New Zealand, Māori lost its role as a living community language used by significant numbers of people in the post-war years. In tandem with calls for sovereignty and for the righting of social injustices from the 1970s onwards, New Zealand schools now teach Māori culture and language as an option, and pre-school kohanga reo (“language-nests”) have started, which teach tamariki (young children) exclusively in Māori. These now extend right through secondary schools (kura tuarua). Most preschool centres teach basics such as colours, numerals and greetings in Māori songs and chants.

In 2004 Māori Television, a government-funded channel committed to broadcasting primarily in te reo, began. Māori is an official language de jure, but English is de facto the national language. At the 2006 Census, Māori was the second most widely-spoken language after English, with four percent of New Zealanders able to speak Māori to at least a conversational level. No official data has been gathered on fluency levels.

Society

Historical development

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A 19th-century depiction of village life.

Polynesian settlers in New Zealand developed a distinct society over several hundred years. Social groups were tribal, with no unified society or single Māori identity until after the arrival of Europeans. Nevertheless, common elements could be found in all Māori groups in pre-European New Zealand, including a shared Polynesian heritage, a common basic language, familial associations, traditions of warfare, and similar mythologies and religious beliefs.

Most Māori lived in villages, which were inhabited by several whānau (extended families) who collectively formed a hapū (clan or subtribe). Members of a hapū cooperated with food production, gathering resources, raising families and defence. Māori society across New Zealand was broadly stratified into three classes of people: rangatira, chiefs and ruling families; tūtūā, commoners; and mōkai, slaves. Tohunga also held special standing in their communities as specialists of revered arts, skills and esoteric knowledge.

Shared ancestry, intermarriage and trade strengthened relationships between different groups. Many hapū with mutually-recognised shared ancestry formed iwi, or tribes, which were the largest social unit in Māori society. Hapū and iwi often united for expeditions to gather food and resources, or in times of conflict. In contrast, warfare developed as an integral part of traditional life, as different groups competed for food and resources, settled personal disputes, and sought to increase their prestige and authority.

250px-Famille_Maori_1998-1361-139Māori whānau from Rotorua in the 1880s. Many aspects of Western life and culture, including European clothing and architecture, became incorporated into Māori society during the 19th century.

The arrival of Europeans to New Zealand dates back to the 17th century, although it was not until the expeditions of James Cook over a hundred years later that any meaningful interactions occurred between Europeans and Māori. For Māori, the new arrivals brought opportunities for trade, which many groups embraced eagerly. Early European settlers introduced tools, weapons, clothing and foods to Māori across New Zealand, in exchange for resources, land and labour. Māori began selectively adopting elements of Western society during the 19th century, including European clothing and food, and later Western education, religion and architecture.

But as the 19th century wore on, relations between European colonial settlers and different Māori groups became increasingly strained. Tensions led to conflict in the 1860s, and the confiscation of millions of acres of Māori land. Significant amounts of land were also purchased by the colonial government and later through the Native Land Court.

20th century

By the start of the 20th century, a greater awareness had emerged of a unified Māori identity, particularly in comparison to Pākehā, who now overwhelmingly outnumbered the Māori as a whole. Māori and Pākehā societies remained largely separate – socially, culturally, economically and geographically – for much of the 19th and early 20th centuries. The key reason for this was that Māori remained almost exclusively a rural population, whereas increasingly the European population was urban especially after 1900. Nevertheless, Māori groups continued to engage with the government and in legal processes to increase their standing in – and ultimately further their incorporation into – wider New Zealand society. The main point of contact with the government were the four Māori Members of Parliament.

Many Māori migrated to larger rural towns and cities during the Depression and post-WWII periods in search of employment, leaving rural communities depleted and disconnecting many urban Māori from their traditional social controls and tribal homelands. Yet while standards of living improved among Māori, they continued to lag behind Pākehā in areas such as health, income, skilled employment and access to higher levels of education. Māori leaders and government policymakers alike struggled to deal with social issues stemming from increased urban migration, including a shortage of housing and jobs, and a rise in urban crime, poverty and health problems.

In regards to housing, a 1961 census revealed significant differences in the living conditions of Māori and Europeans. That year, out of all the (unshared) non-Māori private dwellings in New Zealand, 96.8% had a bath or shower, 94.1% a hot water service, 88.7% a flush toilet, 81.6% a refrigerator, and 78.6% an electric washing machine. By contrast, for all (unshared) Māori private dwellings that same year, 76.8% had a bath or shower, 68.9% a hot water service, 55.8% a refrigerator, 54.1% a flush toilet, and 47% an electric washing machine.

While the arrival of Europeans had a profound impact on the Māori way of life, many aspects of traditional society have survived into the 21st century. Māori participate fully in all spheres of New Zealand culture and society, leading largely Western lifestyles while also maintaining their own cultural and social customs. The traditional social strata of rangatira, tūtūā and mōkai have all but disappeared from Māori society, while the roles of tohunga and kaumātua are still present. Traditional kinship ties are also actively maintained, and the whānau in particular remains an integral part of Māori life.

Marae, hapū and iwi

250px-Whenuakura_Marae,_Taranaki,_New_ZealandWhenuakura Marae in Taranaki. Marae continue to function as local community centres in modern Māori society.

Māori society at a local level is particularly visible at the marae. Formerly the central meeting spaces in traditional villages, marae today usually comprise a group of buildings around an open space, that frequently host events such as weddings, funerals, church services and other large gatherings, with traditional protocol and etiquette usually observed. They also serve as the base of one or sometimes several hapū.

Most Māori affiliate with one or more iwi (and hapū), based on genealogical descent (whakapapa). Iwi vary in size, from a few hundred members to over 100,000 in the case of Ngāpuhi. Many people do not live in their traditional tribal regions as a result of urban migration.

Iwi are usually governed by rūnanga – governing councils or trust boards, which represent the iwi in consultations and negotiations with the New Zealand government. Rūnanga also manage tribal assets and spearhead health, education, economic and social initiatives to help iwi members.

Population

In the 2013 Census, 598,605 people identified as being part of the Māori ethnic group, accounting for 14.9% of the New Zealand population, while 668,724 people (17.5%) claimed Māori descent. Most Māori also have at least some Pākehā ancestry, resulting from a high rate of intermarriage between the two cultures. Under the Maori Affairs Amendment Act 1974 a Māori is defined as “a person of the Māori race of New Zealand; and includes any descendant of such a Māori.”

According to the 2006 Census, the largest iwi by population is Ngāpuhi (125,601), followed by Ngāti Porou (71,049), Ngāi Tahu (54,819) and Waikato (40,083). However, over 110,000 people of Māori descent in the 2013 Census could not identify their iwi. Outside of New Zealand, a large Māori population exists in Australia, estimated at 126,000 in 2006. The Māori Party has suggested a special seat should be created in the New Zealand parliament representing Māori in Australia. Smaller communities also exist in the United Kingdom (approx. 8,000), the United States (up to 3,500) and Canada (approx. 1,000).

Socioeconomic challenges

Māori on average have fewer assets than the rest of the population, and run greater risks of many negative economic and social outcomes. Over 50% of Māori live in areas in the three highest deprivation deciles, compared with 24% of the rest of the population. Although Māori make up only 14% of the population, they make up almost 50% of the prison population.

Māori have higher unemployment-rates than other cultures resident in New Zealand  Māori have higher numbers of suicides than non-Māori. “Only 47% of Māori school-leavers finish school with qualifications higher than NCEA Level One; compared to 74% European; 87% Asian.” Although New Zealand rates well very globally in the PISA rankings that compare national performance in reading, science and maths “…once you disaggregate the PISA scores, Pakeha students are second in the world and Maori are 34th…” Māori suffer more health problems, including higher levels of alcohol and drug abuse, smoking and obesity. Less frequent use of healthcare services mean that late diagnosis and treatment intervention lead to higher levels of morbidity and mortality in many manageable conditions, such as cervical cancer, diabetes per head of population than non-Māori.  Although Māori life expectancy rates have increased dramatically in the last 50 years, they still have considerably lower life-expectancies compared to New Zealanders of European ancestry: in 2004, Māori males lived 69.0 years vs. non-Māori males 77.2 years; Māori females 73.2 yrs vs. non-Māori females 81.9 years. This gap had narrowed by 2013: 72.8 years for men and 76.5 years for women, compared to 80.2 years for non-Māori men and 83.7 years for non-Māori women. Also, a recent study by the New Zealand Family Violence Clearinghouse showed that Māori women and children are more likely to experience domestic violence than any other ethnic group.

Race relations

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Protest hikoi during the Foreshore and seabed controversy in 2004.

The status of Māori as the indigenous people of New Zealand is recognised in New Zealand law by the term tangata whenua (lit. “people of the land”), which identifies the traditional connection between Māori and a given area of land. Māori as a whole can be considered as tangata whenua of New Zealand entirely; individual iwi are recognised as tangata whenua for areas of New Zealand in which they are traditionally based, while hapū are tangata whenua within their marae. New Zealand law periodically requires consultation between the government and tangata whenua – for example, during major land development projects. This usually takes the form of negotiations between local or national government and the rūnanga of one or more relevant iwi, although the government generally decides which (if any) concerns are acted upon.

Māori issues are a prominent feature of race relations in New Zealand. Historically, many Pākehā viewed race relations in their country as being the “best in the world”, a view that prevailed until Māori urban migration in the mid-20th century brought cultural and socioeconomic differences to wider attention.

Māori protest movements grew significantly in the 1960s and 1970s seeking redress for past grievances, particularly in regard to land rights. Successive governments have responded by enacting affirmative action programmes, funding cultural rejuvenation initiatives and negotiating tribal settlements for past breaches of the Treaty of Waitangi. Further efforts have focused on cultural preservation and reducing socioeconomic disparity.

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New Zealand endorses the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples in April 2010.

Nevertheless, race relations remains a contentious issue in New Zealand society. Māori advocates continue to push for further redress claiming that their concerns are being marginalised or ignored. Conversely, critics denounce the scale of assistance given to Māori as amounting to preferential treatment for a select group of people based on race. Both sentiments were highlighted during the foreshore and seabed controversy in 2004, in which the New Zealand government claimed sole ownership of the New Zealand foreshore and seabed, over the objections of Māori groups who were seeking customary title.

Commerce

The New Zealand Law Commission has started a project to develop a legal framework for Māori who want to manage communal resources and responsibilities. The voluntary system proposes an alternative to existing companies, incorporations, and trusts in which tribes and hapū and other groupings can interact with the legal system. The foreshadowed legislation, under the proposed name of the “Waka Umanga (Māori Corporations) Act”, would provide a model adaptable to suit the needs of individual iwi. At the end of 2009, the proposed legislation was awaiting a second hearing.

Wider commercial exposure has increased public awareness of the Māori culture, but has also resulted in several notable legal disputes. Between 1998 and 2006, Ngāti Toa attempted to trademark the haka “Ka Mate” to prevent its use by commercial organisations without their permission. In 2001, Danish toymaker Lego faced legal action by several Māori tribal groups (fronted by lawyer Maui Solomon) and members of the on-line discussion forum Aotearoa Cafe for trademarking Māori words used in naming the Bionicle product range – see Bionicle Māori controversy.

Political representation

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The opening of the Māori Parliament at Pāpāwai, Greytown in 1897, with Richard Seddon in attendance.

Māori have been involved in New Zealand politics since the Declaration of the Independence of New Zealand, before the Treaty of Waitangi was signed in 1840. Māori have had reserved seats in the Parliament of New Zealand since 1868: presently, this accounts for seven of the 122 seats in New Zealand’s unicameral parliament. The contesting of these seats was the first opportunity for many Māori to participate in New Zealand elections, although the elected Māori representatives initially struggled to assert significant influence. Māori received universal suffrage with other New Zealand citizens in 1893.

Being a traditionally tribal people, no one organisation ostensibly speaks for all Māori nationwide. The Māori King Movement originated in the 1860s as an attempt by several iwi to unify under one leader: in modern times, it serves a largely ceremonial role. Another attempt at political unity was the Kotahitanga Movement, which established a separate Māori Parliament that held annual sessions from 1892 until its last sitting in 1902.

There are seven designated Māori seats in the Parliament of New Zealand (and Māori can and do stand in and win general roll seats), and consideration of and consultation with Māori have become routine requirements for councils and government organisations. Debate occurs frequently as to the relevance and legitimacy of the Māori electoral roll, and the National Party announced in 2008 it would abolish the seats when all historic Treaty settlements have been resolved, which it aims to complete by 2014. Several Māori political parties have formed over the years to improve the position of Māori in New Zealand society. The present Māori Party, formed in 2004, secured 1.43% of the party vote at the 2011 general election and holds three seats in the 50th New Zealand Parliament, with two MPs serving as Ministers outside Cabinet.

Wikipedia

October 19, 2015 / by / in
History of New Zealand

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The history of New Zealand dates back at least 700 years to when it was discovered and settled by Polynesians, who developed a distinct Māori culture centred on kinship links and land. The first European explorer to sight New Zealand was Abel Janszoon Tasman on 13 December 1642. Captain James Cook, who reached New Zealand in October 1769 on the first of his three voyages, was the first European explorer to circumnavigate and map New Zealand.

From the late 18th century, the country was regularly visited by explorers and other sailors, missionaries, traders and adventurers. In 1840 the Treaty of Waitangi was signed between the British Crown and various Māori chiefs, bringing New Zealand into the British Empire and giving Māori equal rights with British citizens. There was extensive British settlement throughout the rest of the century. War and the imposition of a European economic and legal system led to most of New Zealand’s land passing from Māori to Pākehā (European) ownership, and most Māori subsequently became impoverished.

From the 1890s the New Zealand parliament enacted a number of progressive initiatives, including women’s suffrage and old age pensions. From the 1930s the economy was highly regulated and an extensive welfare state was developed. Meanwhile, Māori culture underwent a renaissance, and from the 1950s Māori began moving to the cities in large numbers. This led to the development of a Māori protest movement which in turn led to greater recognition of the Treaty of Waitangi in the late 20th century. In the 1980s the economy was largely deregulated and a number of socially liberal policies, such as decriminalisation of homosexuality, were put in place. Foreign policy involved support for Britain in the world wars, and close relations after 1940 with the United States and Australia. Foreign policy after 1980 became more independent especially in pushing for a nuclear-free region. Subsequent governments have generally maintained these policies, although tempering the free market ethos somewhat.

Polynesian foundation

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Māori whānau from Rotorua in the 1880s. Many aspects of Western life and culture, including European clothing and architecture, became incorporated into Māori society during the 19th century.

New Zealand was originally settled by Polynesians from Eastern Polynesia. The most current reliable evidence strongly indicates that initial settlement of New Zealand occurred around 1280 CE. Previous dating of some Kiore (Polynesian rat) bones at 50 – 150 CE has now been shown to have been unreliable; new samples of bone (and now also of unequivocally rat-gnawed woody seed cases) match the 1280 CE date of the earliest archaeological sites and the beginning of sustained, anthropogenic deforestation.

The descendants of these settlers became known as the Māori, forming a distinct culture of their own. The separate settlement of the tiny Chatham Islands in the east of New Zealand about 1500 CE produced the Moriori people; linguistic evidence indicates that the Moriori were mainland Māori who ventured eastward.

The original settlers quickly exploited the abundant large game in New Zealand, such as moa, large flightless ratites that were pushed to extinction by about 1500. As moa and other large game became scarce or extinct, Māori culture underwent major change, with regional differences. In areas where it was possible to grow taro and kūmara, horticulture became more important. This was not possible in the south of the South Island, but wild plants such as fernroot were often available and cabbage trees were harvested and cultivated for food. Warfare also increased in importance, reflecting increased competition for land and other resources. In this period, fortified pā became more common, although there is debate about the actual frequency of warfare. As elsewhere in the Pacific, cannibalism was part of warfare.

Leadership was based on a system of chieftainship, which was often but not always hereditary, although chiefs (male or female) needed to demonstrate leadership abilities to avoid being superseded by more dynamic individuals. The most important units of pre-European Māori society were the whānau or extended family, and the hapū or group of whānau. After these came the iwi or tribe, consisting of groups of hapū. Related hapū would often trade goods and co-operate on major projects, but conflict between hapū was also relatively common. Traditional Māori society preserved history orally through narratives, songs, and chants; skilled experts could recite the tribal genealogies (whakapapa) back for hundreds of years. Arts included whaikōrero (oratory), song composition in multiple genres, dance forms including haka, as well as weaving, highly developed wood carving, and tā moko (tattoo).

Birds, fish and sea mammals were important sources of protein.  Māori cultivated food plants which they had brought with them from Polynesia, including sweet potatoes (called kūmara), taro, gourds, and yams. They also cultivated the cabbage tree, a plant endemic to New Zealand, and exploited wild foods such as fern root, which provided a starchy paste.

Explorers and other visitors

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First map of New Zealand, drawn by Captain James Cook.

The first Europeans known to reach New Zealand were the crew of Dutch explorer Abel Tasman who arrived in his ships Heemskerck and Zeehaen. Tasman anchored at the northern end of the South Island in Golden Bay (he named it Murderers’ Bay) in December 1642 and sailed northward to Tonga following a clash with local Māori. Tasman sketched sections of the two main islands’ west coasts. Tasman called them Staten Landt, after the States-General of the Netherlands, and that name appeared on his first maps of the country. In 1645 Dutch cartographers changed the name to Nova Zeelandia in Latin, from Nieuw Zeeland, after the Dutch province of Zeeland. It was subsequently Anglicised as New Zealand by British naval captain James Cook of HM Bark Endeavour who visited the islands more than 100 years after Tasman during 1769–1770. Cook returned to New Zealand on both of his subsequent voyages.

Various claims have been made that New Zealand was reached by other non-Polynesian voyagers before Tasman, but these are not widely accepted. Peter Trickett, for example, argues in Beyond Capricorn that the Portuguese explorer Cristóvão de Mendonça reached New Zealand in the 1520s, and the Tamil bell discovered by missionary William Colenso has given rise to a number of theories, but historians generally believe the bell ‘is not in itself proof of early Tamil contact with New Zealand’.

From the 1790s, the waters around New Zealand were visited by British, French and American whaling, sealing and trading ships. Their crews traded European goods, including guns and metal tools, for Māori food, water, wood, flax and sex. Māori were reputed to be enthusiastic and canny traders. Although there were some conflicts, such as the killing of French explorer Marc-Joseph Marion du Fresne and the destruction of the Boyd, most contact between Māori and European was peaceful. From the early 19th century missionaries began settling in New Zealand and attempting to convert Māori to Christianity and control the considerably lawless European visitors.

Māori response

The effect of contact on Māori varied. In some inland areas life went on more or less unchanged, although a European metal tool such as a fish-hook or hand axe might be acquired through trade with other tribes. At the other end of the scale, tribes that frequently encountered Europeans, such as Ngā Puhi in Northland, underwent major changes.

Pre-European Māori had no distance weapons except for tao (spears) and the introduction of the musket had an enormous impact on Māori warfare. Tribes with muskets would attack tribes without them, killing or enslaving many. As a result, guns became very valuable and Māori would trade huge quantities of goods for a single musket. For over two decades the Musket Wars raged until a new balance of power was achieved after most tribes had acquired muskets. In 1835, the peaceful Moriori of the Chatham Islands were attacked, enslaved, and nearly exterminated by mainland Ngāti Mutunga and Ngāti Tama Māori. In the 1901 census, only 35 Moriori were recorded although the numbers subsequently increased.

Around this time, many Māori converted to Christianity. The reasons for this have been hotly debated, and may include social and cultural disruption caused by the Musket Wars and European contact. Other factors may have been the appeal of a religion that promotes peace and forgiveness, a desire to emulate the Europeans and to gain a similar abundance of material goods, and the Māori’s polytheistic culture that easily accepted the new God.

European settlement

European settlement increased through the early decades of the 19th century, with numerous trading stations established, especially in the North. The first full-blooded European infant in the territory, Thomas King, was born in 1815 in the Bay of Islands. Kerikeri, founded in 1822, and Bluff founded in 1823, both claim to be the oldest European settlements in New Zealand.

Many Europeans bought land from Māori, but misunderstanding and different concepts of land ownership led to conflict and bitterness. In 1839, the New Zealand Company announced plans to buy large tracts of land and establish colonies in New Zealand. This alarmed the missionaries, who called for British control of European settlers in New Zealand.

British sovereignty

In 1788 the colony of New South Wales had been founded. According to Captain Phillip’s amended Commission, dated 25 April 1787, the colony included all the islands adjacent in the Pacific Ocean within the latitudes of 10°37’S and 43°39’S which included most of New Zealand except for the southern half of the South Island. In 1825 with Van Diemen’s Land becoming a separate colony, the southern boundary of New South Wales was altered to the islands adjacent in the Pacific Ocean with a southern boundary of 39°12’S which included only the northern half of the North Island. However, these boundaries had no real impact as the New South Wales administration had little interest in New Zealand.

In response to complaints about lawless sailors and adventurers in New Zealand, the British government appointed James Busby as Official Resident in 1832. In 1834 he encouraged Māori chiefs to assert their sovereignty with the signing of the Declaration of Independence in 1835. This was acknowledged by King William IV. Busby was provided with neither legal authority nor military support and was thus ineffective in controlling the European population.

Treaty of Waitangi

In 1839, the New Zealand Company announced its plans to establish colonies in New Zealand. This, and the continuing lawlessness of many of the established settlers, spurred the British to take stronger action. Captain William Hobson was sent to New Zealand to persuade Māori to cede their sovereignty to the British Crown. In reaction to the New Zealand Company’s moves, on 15 June 1839 a new Letters patent was issued to expand the territory of New South Wales to include all of New Zealand. Governor of New South Wales George Gipps was appointed Governor over New Zealand. This was the first clear expression of British intent to annex New Zealand.

On 6 February 1840, Hobson and about forty Māori chiefs signed the Treaty of Waitangi at Waitangi in the Bay of Islands. Copies of the Treaty were subsequently taken around the country to be signed by other chiefs. A significant number refused to sign or were not asked but, in total, more than five hundred Māori eventually signed.

The Treaty gave Māori sovereignty over their lands and possessions and all of the rights of British citizens. What it gave the British in return depends on the language-version of the Treaty that is referred to. The English version can be said to give the British Crown sovereignty over New Zealand but in the Māori version the Crown receives kawanatanga, which, arguably, is a lesser power (see interpretations of the Treaty). Dispute over the true meaning and the intent of either party remains an issue.

Britain was motivated by the desire to forestall other European powers (France established a very small settlement at Akaroa in the South Island later in 1840), to facilitate settlement by British subjects and, possibly, to end the lawlessness of European (predominantly British and American) whalers, sealers and traders. Officials and missionaries had their own positions and reputations to protect.

Māori chiefs were motivated by a desire for protection from foreign powers, the establishment of governorship over European settlers and traders in New Zealand, and to allow for wider settlement that would increase trade and prosperity for Māori.

Hobson died in September 1842. Robert FitzRoy, the new governor, took some legal steps to recognise Māori custom. However, his successor, George Grey, promoted rapid cultural assimilation and reduction of the land ownership, influence and rights of the Māori. The practical effect of the Treaty was, in the beginning, only gradually felt, especially in predominantly Māori regions.

Colonial period

The European population of New Zealand grew explosively from fewer than 1000 in 1831 to 500,000 by 1881. Some 400,000 settlers came from Britain, of whom 300,000 stayed permanently. Most were young people and 250,000 babies were born. The passage of 120,000 was paid by the colonial government. After 1880 immigration slacked off and growth was due chiefly to the excess of births over deaths.

Administered at first as a part of the Australian colony of New South Wales, New Zealand became a colony in its own right on 1 July 1841. It was divided into three provinces that were reorganised in 1846 and in 1853, when they acquired their own legislatures, and then abolished in 1876. The country rapidly gained some measure of self-government through the New Zealand Constitution Act 1852, which established central and provincial government.

The Maori tribes at first sold the land to the settlers, but the government voided the sales in 1840. Now only the government was allowed to purchase land from the Maori, who received cash. The government bought practically all the useful land, then resold it to the New Zealand Company, which promoted immigration, or leased it for sheep runs. The Company resold the best tracts to British settlers; its profits were used to pay the travel of the immigrants from Britain.

Because of the vast distances involved, the first settlers were self-sufficient farmers. By the 1840s, however, large scale sheep ranches were exporting large quantities of wool to the textile mills of England. Most of the first settlers were brought over by a programme operated by the New Zealand Company (inspired by Edward Gibbon Wakefield) and were located in the central region on either side of Cook Strait, and at Wellington, Wanganui, New Plymouth and Nelson. These settlements had access to some of the richest plains in the country and after refrigerated ships appeared in 1882, they developed into closely settled regions of small-scale farming. Outside these compact settlements were the sheep runs. Pioneer pastoralists, often men with experience as squatters in Australia, leased lands from the government at the annual rate of £5 plus £1 for each 1,000 sheep above the first 5,000. The leases were renewed automatically, which gave the wealthy pastoralists a strong landed interest and made them a powerful political force. In all between 1856 and 1876, 8.1 million acres were sold for £7.6 million, and 2.2 million acres were given free to soldiers, sailors and settlers.

Gold discoveries in Otago (1861) and Westland (1865), caused a worldwide gold rush that more than doubled the population in a short period, from 71,000 in 1859 to 164,000 in 1863. The value of trade increased fivefold from £2 million to £10 million. As the gold boom ended Premier Julius Vogel borrowed money from British investors and launched in 1870 an ambitious programme of public works and infrastructure investment, together with a policy of assisted immigration. Successive governments expanded the program with offices across Britain that enticed settlers and gave them and their families one-way tickets.

Wakefield’s vision

British writer Edward Gibbon Wakefield (1796-1862) exerted a far-reaching influence. His plans for systematic British colonization focused on a free labour system, in contrast to slavery that existed in the United States and convict labour in Australia. Inspired by evangelical religion and abolitionism, Wakefield’s essays (1829 to 1849), condemned both slavery and indentured and convict labour, as immoral, unjust, and inefficient. Instead, he proposed a government sponsored system in which the price of farm land was set at a high enough level to prevent urban workers from easily purchasing it and thus leaving the labour market. His colonisation programs were over-elaborate and operated on a much smaller scale than he hoped for, but his ideas influenced law and culture, especially his vision for the colony as the embodiment of post-Enlightenment ideals, the notion of New Zealand as a model society, and the sense of fairness in employer-employee relations.

Women

Although norms of masculinity were dominant, strong minded women originated a feminist movement starting in the 1860s, well before women gained the right to vote in 1893. Middle class women employed the media (especially newspapers) to communicate with each other and define their priorities. Prominent feminist writers included Mary Taylor, Mary Colclough (pseud. Polly Plum), and Ellen Ellis. The first signs of a politicized collective female identity came in crusades to pass the Contagious Diseases Prevention Act.

Feminists by the 1880s were using the rhetoric of “white slavery” to reveal men’s sexual and social oppression of women. By demanding that men take responsibility for the right of women to walk the streets in safety, New Zealand feminists deployed the rhetoric of white slavery to argue for women’s sexual and social freedom. Middle class women successfully mobilized to stop prostitution, especially during the First World War.

Maori women developed their own form of feminism, derived from Maori nationalism rather than European sources.

In 1893 Elizabeth Yates was elected mayor of Onehunga; an able administrator, she cut the debt, reorganised the fire brigade, and improved the roads and sanitation. Many men were hostile and she was defeated for reelection. Hutching argues that after 1890 women were increasingly well organized through the National Council of Women, the Women’s Christian Temperance Union (WCTU), the Women’s International League, and the Housewives Union, and others. By 1910 they were campaigning for peace, and against compulsory military training, and conscription. They demanded arbitration and the peaceful resolution of international disputes. The women argued that womenhood (thanks to motherhood) was the repository of superior moral values and concerns and from their domestic experience they knew best how to resolve conflicts

Schools

Before 1877 numerous schools were operated by the provincial government or churches, or by private subscription. No one was required to attend and many children did not attend any school, especially farm children whose labour was important to the family economy. The quality of education varied widely amongst those providing it. The Education Act 1877 established New Zealand’s first free national system of primary education. It established standards of quality of education, and reduce the secular influence on education. It became compulsory for children from ages 5 to 15 to attend primary school.

Immigration

200px-Scottish_poster_advertising_emigration_to_New_Zealand

“First Scottish Colony for New Zealand” — 1839 poster advertising emigration from Scotland to New Zealand. Collection of Kelvingrove Art Gallery and Museum, Glasgow, Scotland.

From 1840 there was considerable European settlement, primarily from England and Wales, Scotland and Ireland; and to a lesser extent the United States, India, and various parts of continental Europe, including the province of Dalmatia in what is now Croatia, and Bohemia in what is now the Czech Republic. Already a majority of the population by 1859, the number of white settlers (called Pākehā by Māori) increased rapidly to reach a million by 1911.

In the 1870s and 1880s, several thousand Chinese men, mostly from Guangdong province, migrated to New Zealand to work on the South Island goldfields. Although the first Chinese migrants had been invited by the Otago Provincial government they quickly became the target of hostility from white settlers and laws were enacted specifically to discourage them from coming to New Zealand

Māori adaptation and resistance

Māori had welcomed Pākehā for the trading opportunities and guns they brought. However it soon became clear that they had underestimated the number of settlers that would arrive in their lands. Iwi (tribes) whose land was the base of the main settlements quickly lost much of their land and autonomy through government acts. Others prospered—until about 1860 the city of Auckland bought most of its food from Māori who grew and sold it themselves. Many iwi owned flour mills, ships and other items of European technology, some exported food to Australia. Although race relations were generally peaceful in this period, there were conflicts over who had ultimate power in particular areas—the Governor or the Māori chiefs. One such conflict was the Northern or Flagstaff War of the 1840s, during which the town of Kororareka was destroyed.

As the Pākehā population grew, pressure grew on Māori to sell more land. A few tribes had become nearly landless and others feared losing their lands. Land is not only an economic resource, but also the basis of Māori identity and a connection with their ancestors. Land was held communally, it was not given up without discussion and consultation—or loss during warfare.

Pākehā had little understanding of all that and accused Māori of holding onto land they did not use efficiently. Competition for land was a primary cause of the New Zealand Land Wars of the 1860s and 1870s, in which the Taranaki and Waikato regions were invaded by colonial troops and Māori of these regions had much of their land taken from them. The wars and confiscation left bitterness that remains to this day.

Some iwi sided with the government and, later, fought with the government. They were motivated partly by the thought that an alliance with the government would benefit them, and partly by old feuds with the iwi they fought against. One result of their co-operation strategy was the establishment of the four Māori seats in parliament, in 1867.

After the wars, some Māori began a strategy of passive resistance, most famously at Parihaka in Taranaki. Others continued co-operating with Pākehā. For example, tourism ventures were established by Te Arawa around Rotorua. Resisting and co-operating iwi both found that the Pākehā desire for land remained. In the last decades of the century, most iwi lost substantial amounts of land through the activities of the Native Land Court. This was set up to give Māori land European-style titles and to establish exactly who owned it. Due to its Eurocentric rules, the high fees, its location remote from the lands in question, and unfair practices by many Pākehā land agents, its main effect was to directly or indirectly separate Māori from their land.

The combination of war, confiscations, disease, assimilation and intermarriage, land loss leading to poor housing and alcohol abuse, and general disillusionment, caused a fall in the Māori population from around 86,000 in 1769 to around 70,000 in 1840 and around 48,000 by 1874, hitting a low point of 42,000 in 1896. Subsequently their numbers began to recover.

South Island

300px-NZ_religious_denominations

The settlement of English in the North Island and northern South Island and Scottish in the Deep South is reflected in the dominance of Anglicanism and Presbyterianism in the respective regions.

While the North Island was convulsed by the Land Wars, the South Island, with its low Māori population, was generally peaceful. In 1861 gold was discovered at Gabriel’s Gully in Central Otago, sparking a gold rush. Dunedin became the wealthiest city in the country and many in the South Island resented financing the North Island’s wars. In 1865 Parliament defeated a proposal to make the South Island independent by 17 to 31.

The South Island contained most of the Pākehā population until around 1900 when the North Island again took the lead and has supported an ever greater majority of the country’s total population through the 20th century and into the 21st.

Scottish immigrants dominated the South Island and evolved ways to bridge the old homeland and the new. Many local Caledonian societies were formed. They organized sports teams to entice the young and preserved an idealized Scottish national myth (based on Robert Burns) for the elderly. They gave Scots a path to assimilation and cultural integration as Scottish New Zealanders.

1890-1914

Politics

The prewar era saw the advent of party politics, with the establishment of the First Liberal government. The landed gentry and aristocracy ruled Britain at this time. New Zealand never had an aristocracy but it did have wealthy landowners who largely controlled politics before 1891. The Liberal Party set out to change that by a policy it called “populism.” Richard Seddon had proclaimed the goal as early as 1884: “It is the rich and the poor; it is the wealthy and the landowners against the middle and labouring classes. That, Sir, shows the real political position of New Zealand.” The Liberal strategy was to create a large class of small land-owning farmers who supported Liberal ideals. The First Liberal government also established the basis of the later welfare state, with old age pensions, developed a system for settling industrial disputes, which was accepted by both employers and trade unions. In 1893 it extended voting rights to women, making New Zealand the first country in the world to enact universal female suffrage.

To obtain land for farmers the Liberal government from 1891 to 1911 purchased 3.1 million acres of Maori land. The government also purchased 1.3 million acres from large estate holders for subdivision and closer settlement by small farmers. The Advances to Settlers Act of 1894 provided low-interest mortgages, while the Agriculture Department disseminated information on the best farming methods.

The 1909 Native Land Act allowed the Maori to sell land to private buyers. By 1920 Maori still owned five million acres by 1920; they leased three million acres and used one million acres for themselves. The Liberals proclaimed success in forging an egalitarian, antimonopoly land policy. The policy built up support for the Liberal party in rural North Island electorates. By 1903 the Liberals were so dominant that there was no longer an organized opposition in Parliament.

New Zealand gained international attention for its reforms, especially how the state regulated labour relations. Of special note were innovations in the areas of maximum hour regulations, minimum wage laws, and compulsory arbitration procedures. The goal was to encourage unions but discourage strikes and class conflict. The impact was especially strong on the reform movement in the United States.

Coleman argues that the Liberals in 1891 lacked a clearcut ideology to guide them. Instead they approached the nation’s problems pragmatically, keeping in mind the constraints imposed by democratic public opinion. To deal with the issue of land distribution, they worked out innovative solutions to access, tenure, and a graduated tax on unimproved values.

Economy

Major changes occurred during this decade. The economy grew from one based on wool and local trade to the export of wool, cheese, butter and frozen beef and mutton to Britain, a change enabled by the invention of refrigerated steamships in 1882. Refrigerated shipping remained the basis of New Zealand’s economy until the 1970s. New Zealand’s highly productive agriculture gave it probably the world’s highest standard of living, with fewer at the rich and poor ends of the scale.

In the 1880–1914 era the banking system was weak and there was little foreign investment, so businessmen had to build up their own capital. Historians have debated whether the “long depression” of the late 19th century stifled investment, but the New Zealanders found a way around adverse conditions. Hunter has studied the experiences of 133 entrepreneurs who started commercial enterprises between 1880 and 1910. The successful strategy was to deploy capital economizing techniques, and reinvesting profits rather than borrowing. The result was slow but stable growth that avoided bubbles and led to long-lived family owned firms.

Dominion and Realm

New Zealand initially expressed interest in joining the proposed Federation of the Australian colonies, attending the 1891 National Australia Convention in Sydney. Interest in the proposed Australian Federation faded and New Zealand decided against joining the Commonwealth of Australia in 1901, and instead changed from being a colony to a separate “dominion” in 1907, equal in status to Australia and Canada

Prohibition

In New Zealand, prohibition was a moralistic reform movement begun in the mid-1880s by the Protestant evangelical and Nonconformist churches and the Woman’s Christian Temperance Union and after 1890 by the Prohibition League. It never achieved its goal of national prohibition. It was a middle-class movement which accepted the existing economic and social order; the effort to legislate morality assumed that individual redemption was all that was needed to carry the colony forward from a pioneering society to a more mature one. However, both the Church of England and the largely Irish Catholic Church rejected prohibition as an intrusion of government into the church’s domain, while the growing labour movement saw capitalism rather than alcohol as the enemy. Reformers hoped that the women’s vote, in which New Zealand was a pioneer, would swing the balance, but the women were not as well organized as in other countries. Prohibition had a majority in a national referendum in 1911, but needed a 60% majority to pass. The movement kept trying in the 1920s, losing three more referenda by close votes; it managed to keep in place a 6pm closing hour for pubs and Sunday closing. The Depression and war years effectively ended the movement.

First World War

The country remained an enthusiastic member of the British Empire, and 100,000 men fought in World War I (see New Zealand Expeditionary Force). New Zealand forces took Western Samoa from Germany in the early stages of the war, and New Zealand administered the country until Samoan Independence in 1962. The heroism of the soldiers in the failed Gallipoli campaign made their sacrifices iconic in New Zealand memory, and secured the psychological independence of the nation.

1920s

After the war New Zealand signed the Treaty of Versailles (1919) joined the League of Nations and pursued an independent foreign policy, while its defense was still controlled by Britain. New Zealand depended on Britain’s Royal Navy for its military security during the 1920s and 1930s. Officials in Wellington trusted Conservative Party governments in London, but not Labour. When the British Labour Party took power in 1924 and 1929, the New Zealand government felt threatened by Labour’s foreign policy because of its reliance upon the League of Nations. The League was distrusted and Wellington did not expect to see the coming of a peaceful world order under League auspices. What had been the Empire’s most loyal dominion became a dissenter as it opposed efforts the first and second British Labour governments to trust the League’s framework of arbitration and collective security agreements.

The governments of the Reform and United parties between 1912 and 1935 followed a “realistic” foreign policy. They made national security a high priority, were skeptical of international institutions, and showed no interest on the questions of self-determination, democracy, and human rights. However the opposition Labour Party was more idealistic and proposed a liberal internationalist outlook on international affairs.

The Labour Party emerged as a force in 1919 with a Socialist platform. Its won about 25% of the vote. However its appeals to working class solidarity were not effective because a large fraction of the working class voted for conservative candidates of the Liberal and Reform parties. (They merged in 1936 to form the National Party.) As a consequence the Labour party was able to jettison its support for socialism in 1927 (a policy made official in 1951), as it expanded its reach into middle class constituencies. The result was an jump in strength to 35% in 1931, 47% in 1935, and peaking at 56% in 1938. From 1935 the First Labour Government showed a limited degree of idealism in foreign policy, for example opposing the appeasement of Germany and Japan.

Depression

Like most other countries, New Zealand was hard hit by the Great Depression of the 1930s, which affected the country via its international trade, with farming export drops then going on to affect the money supply and in turn consumption, investment and imports. The country was most affected around 1930-1932, when average farm incomes for a short time dipped below zero, and the unemployment rates peaked. Though actual unemployment numbers were not officially counted, the country was affected especially strongly in the North Island.

Unlike later years, there were no public benefit (‘dole’) payments — the unemployed were given ‘relief work’, much of which was however not very productive, partly because the size of the problem was unprecedented. Women also increasingly registered as unemployed, while Maori received government help through other channels such as the land development schemes organised by Apirana Ngata. In 1933, 8.5% of the unemployed were organised in work camps, while the rest received work close to their homes. Typical occupations in relief work were road work (undertaken by 45% of all part-time and 19% of all full-time relief workers in 1934, with park improvement works (17%) and farm work (31%) being the other two most common types of work for part-time and full-time relief workers respectively)

Labour in power

Attempts by the conservative Liberal-Reform coalition to deal with the situation with spending cuts and relief work were ineffective and unpopular. In 1935, the First Labour Government was elected, and the post-depression decade showed that average Labour support in New Zealand had roughly doubled comparable to pre-depression times. By 1935 economic conditions had improved somewhat, and the new government had more positive financial conditions. Savage proclaimed that, “Social Justice must be the guiding principle and economic organization must adapt itself to social needs.”

The new government quickly set about implementing a number of significant reforms, including a reorganisation of the social welfare system and the creation of the state housing scheme. Labour also gained Maori votes by working closely with the Rātana movement. Savage was idolized by the working classes, and his portrait hung on the walls of many houses around the country. The newly created welfare state promised government support to individuals “From the cradle to the grave,” according to the Labour slogan. It included free health care and education and state assistance for the elderly, infirm, and unemployed. The opposition attacked the Labour Party’s more left-wing policies, and accused it of undermining free enterprise and hard work. The Reform Party and the United Party merged to become the National Party, and would be Labour’s main rival in future years. However the welfare state system was retained and expanded by successive National and Labour governments until the 1980s

Second World War

When World War II broke out in 1939, New Zealanders saw their proper role as defending their proud place in the British Empire. It contributed some 120,000 troops. They mostly fought in North Africa, Greece/Crete, and Italy, relying on the Royal Navy and later the United States to protect New Zealand from the Japanese forces. Japan had no interest in New Zealand in the first place; it had already overreached when it invaded New Guinea in 1942. (There were a few highly publicized but ineffective Japanese scouting incursions.) The 3rd New Zealand Division fought in the Solomons in 1943-44, but New Zealand’s limited manpower meant 2 Divisions could not be maintained, and it was disbanded and its men returned to civilian life or used to reinforce the 2nd Division in Italy. Cooperation with the United States set a direction of policy which resulted in the ANZUS Treaty between New Zealand, America and Australia in 1951, as well as participation in the Korean War.

Fedorowich and Bridge argue that the demands of War produced long-term consequences the relationship with the government in London. The key component was the office of the high commissioner. By 1950 it was the main line of communications between the British and New Zealand governments.

Montgomerie shows that the war dramatically increased the roles of women, especially married women, in the labour force. Most of them took traditional female jobs. Some replaced men but the changes here were temporary and reversed in 1945. After the war, women left traditional male occupations and many women gave up paid employment to return home. There was no radical change in gender roles but the war intensified occupational trends under way since the 1920s

Post-war

Mainstream New Zealand culture was deeply British and conservative, with the concept of “fairness” holding a central role. From the 1890s, the economy had been based almost entirely on the export of frozen meat and dairy products to Britain, and in 1961, the share of New Zealand exports going to the United Kingdom was still at slightly over 51%, with approximately 15% more going to other European countries. This system was irreparably damaged by Britain joining the European Economic Community in 1973, at a time of global economic upheaval regarding energy prices. Britain’s accession to the European Community forced New Zealand to not only find new markets, but also re-examine its national identity and place in the world.

Maori urbanisation

Māori always had a high birth rate; that was neutralized by a high death rate until modern public health measures became effective in the 20th century when tuberculosis deaths and infant mortality declined sharply. Life expectancy grew from 49 years in 1926 to 60 years in 1961 and the total numbers grew rapidly. Many Māori served in the Second World War and learned how to cope in the modern urban world; others moved from their rural homes to the cities to take up jobs vacated by Pākehā servicemen. The shift to the cities was also caused by their strong birth rates in the early 20th century, with the existing rural farms in Māori ownership having increasing difficulty in providing enough jobs. Māori culture had meanwhile undergone a renaissance thanks in part to politician Apirana Ngata. World War II saw the beginning of a mass Māori migration to the cities, and by the 1980s 80% of the Māori population was urban, in contrast to only 20% before the war. The migration led to better pay, higher standards of living and longer schooling, but also exposed problems of racism and discrimination. By the late 1960s, a protest movement had emerged to combat racism, promote Māori culture and seek fulfilment of the Treaty of Waitangi.

Urbanisation proceeded rapidly across the land. In the late 1940s, town planners noted that the country was “possibly the third most urbanised country in the world”, with two thirds of the population living in cities or towns. There was also increasing concern that this trend was badly managed, with it being noted that there was an “ill-defined urban pattern that appears to have few of the truly desirable urban qualities and yet manifests no compensating rural characteristics.”

The “Muldoon years”: 1975–1984

The country’s economy suffered in the aftermath of the 1973 global energy crisis, the loss of New Zealand’s biggest export market upon Britain’s entry to the European Economic Community, and rampant inflation. Robert Muldoon, Prime Minister from 1975 to 1984, and his Third National government responded to the crises of the 1970s by attempting to preserve the New Zealand of the 1950s. He attempted to maintain New Zealand’s “cradle to the grave” welfare state, which dated to 1935. His government sought to give retirees 80% of the current wage, which would require large-scale borrowing; critics said it would bankrupt the treasury. Muldoon’s response to the crisis also involved imposing a total freeze on wages, prices, interest rates and dividends across the national economy. His conservatism and antagonistic style exacerbated an atmosphere of conflict in New Zealand, most violently expressed during the 1981 Springbok Tour. In the 1984 elections Labour promised to calm down the increasing tensions, while making no specific promises; it scored a landslide victory.

However, Muldoon’s Government was not entirely backward looking. Some innovations did take place, for example the Closer Economic Relations (CER) free-trade programme with Australia to liberalise trade, starting in 1982. The aim of total free trade between the two countries was achieved in 1990, five years ahead of schedule. Also, in 1983 the term “dominion” was replaced with “realm” by letters patent.

Contemporary history

In 1984, the Fourth Labour government was elected amid a constitutional and economic crisis. Unexpectedly, the Labour government between 1984-1990 launched a major policy of restructuring the economy radically reducing the role of government. A political scientist reports:

“Between 1984 and 1993, New Zealand underwent radical economic reform, moving from what had probably been the most protected, regulated and state-dominated system of any capitalist democracy to an extreme position at the open, competitive, free-market end of the spectrum.”

The economic reforms were led by finance minister Roger Douglas (finance minister (1984-1988), who enacted fundamental, radically neo-liberal and unexpectedly pro-free market reforms known as Rogernomics. This involved removing many of the favours and barriers that had long insulated the economy from world trends. It involved floating the New Zealand dollar, cutting government spending, reducing most taxes and introducing a sales tax (GST), and removing most subsidies. Rogernomics resembled the contemporaneous policies of Margaret Thatcher in Britain and Ronald Reagan in the U.S. Rogernomics was a rapid programme of deregulation and public-asset sales. Subsidies were phased out to farmers and consumers. High finance was partly deregulated. Restrictions on foreign exchange were relaxed and the dollar was allowed to float and seek its natural level on the world market. The tax on high incomes was cut in half from 65% to 33%. The shares exchange entered a bubble, which then burst. Shares had a total value of $50 billion in 1987 and only $15 billion in 1991; Belich says that at one point the crash was “the worst in world.” Overall the economic growth fell from 2% a year to 1%.

Strong criticism of Rogernomics came from the left, especially from Labour’s traditional union and leftist support-base; Lange broke with Douglas’s policies in 1987; both men were forced out and Labour was in confusion.

Other fourth Labour government innovations included greater recognition of the Treaty of Waitangi through the Waitangi Tribunal, Homosexual Law Reform, the Constitution Act 1986 and the New Zealand Bill of Rights.

The Fourth Labour Government also revolutionised New Zealand’s foreign policy, making the country a nuclear-free zone and effectively leaving the ANZUS alliance. Immigration policy was liberalised, allowing an influx of immigrants from Asia. Previously most immigrants to New Zealand had been European and especially British, apart from some migrants from other Pacific Islands such as Samoa

Continuing reform under National

Voters unhappy with the rapid speed and far-reaching extent of reforms elected a National government in 1990, led by Jim Bolger. However the new government continued the economic reforms of the previous Labour government, in what was known as Ruthanasia. Unhappy with what seemed to be a pattern of governments failing to reflect the mood of the electorate, New Zealanders in 1992 and 1993 voted to change the electoral system to Mixed Member Proportional (MMP), a form of proportional representation. New Zealand’s first MMP election was held in 1996. Following the election National was returned to power in coalition with the New Zealand First Party.

With the end of the Cold War in 1991, the nation’s foreign policy turned increasingly to issues of its nuclear-free status and other military issues; its adjustment to neoliberalism in international trade relations; and its involvement in humanitarian, environmental, and other matters of international diplomacy.

21st century

The Fifth Labour government led by Helen Clark was elected in 1999. It maintained most of the previous governments’ economic reforms — restricting government intervention in the economy much more so than previous governments — while putting more of an emphasis on social policy and outcomes. For example, employment law was modified to give more protection to workers, and the student loan system was changed to eliminate interest payments for New Zealand resident students and graduates. Helen Clark’s Labour government remained in power for nine years before being replaced in 2008 by New Zealand’s Fifth National government led by John Key.

New Zealand retains strong but informal links to Britain, with many young New Zealanders travelling to Britain for their “OE” (overseas experience) due to favourable working visa arrangements with Britain. Despite New Zealand’s immigration liberalisation in the 1980s, Britons are still the largest group of migrants to New Zealand, due in part to recent immigration law changes which privilege fluent speakers of English. One constitutional link to Britain remains — New Zealand’s head of State, the Queen in Right of New Zealand, is a British resident. However, British imperial honours were discontinued in 1996, the Governor-General has taken a more active role in representing New Zealand overseas, and appeals from the Court of Appeal to the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council were replaced by a local Supreme Court of New Zealand in 2003. There is public debate about whether New Zealand should become a republic, and public sentiment is divided on the issue.

Foreign policy has been essentially independent since the mid-1980s. Under Prime Minister Clark, foreign policy reflected the priorities of liberal internationalism. She stressed the promotion of democracy and human rights; the strengthening of the role of the United Nations; the advancement of anti-militarism and disarmament; and the encouragement of free trade. She sent troops to the Afghanistan War, but did not contribute combat troops to the Iraq War although some medical and engineering units were sent.

John Key led the National Party to victory in both the November 2008 and the November 2011 general elections. Key leads the Fifth National Government of New Zealand which entered government at the beginning of the late-2000s recession in 2008. In his first term, Key’s government implemented a GST rise and personal tax cuts. In February 2011, a major earthquake in Christchurch, the nation’s second largest city, significantly impacted the national economy and the government formed the Canterbury Earthquake Recovery Authority in response. In its second term, Key’s government announced a policy of partial privatisation of state-owned assets. In foreign policy, Key announced the withdrawal of New Zealand Defence Force personnel from their deployment in the war in Afghanistan, signed the Wellington Declaration with the United States and pushed for more nations to join the Trans-Pacific Strategic Economic Partnership.

Tourism and agriculture are now the major industries that contribute to New Zealand’s economy. The traditional agricultural products of meat, dairy and wool has been supplemented by other products such as fruit, wine and timber.

Credit Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

September 23, 2015 / by / in , ,
List of New Zealand film makers

International Directors

Name Notable Titles Other
Andrew Adamson Shrek 1 and 2, The Narnia film series Academy Award nominee
Martin Campbell Casino Royale, The Mask of Zorro, GoldenEye BAFTA winner
Jane Campion The Piano, Holy Smoke! Academy Award winner
Richard Curtis Love Actually, Bridget Jones’s Diary (writer) BAFTA winner, Academy Award nominee
Roger Donaldson Dante’s Peak, Cocktail, The Recruit Golden Palm nominee
Ellory Elkayem Eight Legged Freaks
Peter Jackson Lord of the Rings trilogy, King Kong 3 time Academy Award winner
Geoff Murphy Under Siege II, Goodbye Pork Pie
Andrew Niccol Lord of War, Gattaca, The Truman Show (writer) BAFTA winner, Academy Award nominee
Lee Tamahori Die Another Day, Along Came a Spider, xXx: State of the Union
Vincent Ward Map of the Human Heart, What Dreams May Come 2 time Golden Palm nominee
Niki Caro Whale Rider, North Country BAFTA winner
Brad McGann In My Father’s Den MNZM

Domestic Directors

Name Notable For
Melanie Read Trial Run, Send a Gorilla
Murray Ball Footrot Flats
Jonathan King Black Sheep
Paul Maunder Sons for the Return Home
Hamish Rothwell Stickmen
Robert Sarkies Out of the Blue, Scarfies
Glenn Standring Perfect Creature, Irrefutable Truth About Demons
Michael Bennett Matariki
Taika Waititi Eagle vs Shark, Boy
Paul Campion The Devil’s Rock

Producers

  • John Barnett
  • Fran Walsh
  • Matthew Metcalfe
  • Fiona Copland
  • Chloe Smith
  • Charles Knight
  • Larry Parr
  • Lisa Chatfield
  • Christopher Hampson
  • Philippa Campbell

Actors

Further information: List of New Zealand actors

New Zealand at the Academy Awards

New Zealand film makers have won a total of sixteen Oscars at the US Film Academy Awards from 41 nominations. Eleven wins were for work on theThe Lord of the Rings film trilogy. The first New Zealand nomination was in 1958 for Snows of Aorangi with New Zealand’s first wins coming in 1994 forThe Piano. 1994

Winners and Nominees

Year Category Film Result Recipient
1958 Best Short Subject (Live Action) Snows of Aorangi Nomination
1964 Best Documentary (Short) 140 Days Under the World Nomination
1987 Best Short Film (Animated) The Frog, the Dog and the Devil Nomination Bob Stenhouse, Hugh MacDonald & Martin Townsend
1994 Best Director The Piano Nomination Jane Campion
1994 Best Supporting Actress The Piano Win Anna Paquin
1994 Best Original Screenplay The Piano Win Jane Campion
1995 Best Original Screenplay Four Weddings and a Funeral Nomination Richard Curtis
1995 Best Original Screenplay Heavenly Creatures Nomination Peter Jackson and Fran Walsh
1999 Best Original Screenplay The Truman Show Nomination Andrew Niccol
1999 Best Actor The Insider Nomination Russell Crowe
2001 Best Actor Gladiator Win Russell Crowe
2002 Best Makeup The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring Win Richard Taylor
2002 Best Visual Effects The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring Win Richard Taylor
2002 Best Adapted Screenplay The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring Nomination Peter Jackson, Fran Walsh and Phillipa Boynes
2002 Best Art Direction/Set Direction The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring Nomination Dan Hennah & Grant Major
2002 Best Costume Design The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring Nomination Richard Taylor & Ngila Dickson
2002 Best Director The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring Nomination Peter Jackson
2002 Best Editing The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring Nomination John Gilbert
2002 Best Picture The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring Nomination Peter Jackson and Fran Walsh
2002 Best Sound The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring Nomination Hammond Peek
2002 Best Actor A Beautiful Mind Nomination Russell Crowe
2003 Best Art Direction/Set Decoration The Lord of the Rings: The Two Towers Nomination Dan Hennah & Grant Major
2003 Best Editing The Lord of the Rings: The Two Towers Nomination Michael Horton
2003 Best Picture The Lord of the Rings: The Two Towers Nomination Peter Jackson and Fran Walsh
2004 Best Adapted Screenplay The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King Win Peter Jackson, Fran Walsh and Phillipa Boynes
2004 Best Art Direction The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King Win Dan Hennah and Grant Major
2004 Best Costume Design The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King Win Ngila Dickson and Richard Taylor
2004 Best Director The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King Win Peter Jackson
2004 Best Editing The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King Win Jamie Selkirk
2004 Best Original Song The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King Win Fran Walsh
2004 Best Makeup The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King Win Richard Taylor
2004 Best Picture The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King Win Peter Jackson and Fran Walsh
2004 Best Sound Mixing The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King Win Michael Hedges and Hammond Peek
2004 Best Actress Whale Rider Nomination Keisha Castle-Hughes
2004 Best Costume Design The Last Samurai Nomination Ngila Dickson
2005 Best Animated Feature Film Shrek 2 Nomination Andrew Adamson
2005 Best Short Film Two Cars, One Night Nomination Taika Cohen and Ainsley Gardener
2006 Best Visual Effects King Kong Win Richard Taylor and Christian Rivers
2006 Best Sound Mixing King Kong Win Michael Hedges and Hammond Peek
2006 Best Sound Editing King Kong Win Mike Hopkins and Ethan Van der Ryn
2006 Best Art Direction King Kong Nomination Dan Hennah, Grant Major and Simon Bright
2006 Best Sound Mixing The Chronicles of Narnia: The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe Nomination Tony Johnson
2012 Best Original Song The Muppets Win Bret McKenzie

Special Effects

Richard Taylor, who is the head of Weta Workshop, has won a notable number of awards for his work on the The Lord of the Rings film trilogy and King Kong. Currently, he holds one of the largest Academy Award Collections.

Credit: Wikipedia

February 19, 2014 / by / in
List of bands from New Zealand

This is a list of bands originating from New Zealand.

#

  • 1814
  • 48May
  • 8 Foot Sativa
  • The 3Ds

A

  • Able Tasmans
  • Antagonist A.D.
  • Atlas
  • Autozamm
  • Avalanche City
  • Annabel Fay
  • Anika Moa

B

  • Bailter Space
  • Bang Bang Eche
  • Bats, The
  • Birchville Cat Motel
  • Black Boned Angel
  • Black River Drive
  • Black Seeds, The
  • Bleeders
  • Blindspott
  • Breaks Co-op
  • Brooke Duff
  • Brunettes, The
  • Blam Blam Blam
  • Brooke Fraser
  • Annah Mac
  • Blacklistt

C

  • Checks, The
  • Chills, The
  • Clean, The
  • Concord Dawn
  • Crowded House
  • Cut Off Your Hands
  • Clap Clap Riot
  • Cassandra’s Ears
  • Cornerstone Roots
  • Che Fu
  • Cooper’s Run

D

  • Datsuns, The
  • Dawn of Azazel
  • DD Smash
  • Demoniac
  • Die!Die!Die!
  • Disasteradio
  • Deja Voodoo
  • Dragon
  • Dukes
  • D4, The
  • Dave Dobbyn
  • Dane Rumble
  • Dance Exponents

E

  • Elemeno P
  • Electric Confectionaires, The
  • Enemy, The
  • Enright House, The
  • Evermore
  • Exponents, The

F

  • Flight of the Conchords
  • Fall Within
  • Fat Freddy’s Drop
  • False Start
  • Fast Crew
  • Feelers, The
  • Fur Patrol
  • Fly My Pretties
  • From Scratch

G

  • Goldenhorse
  • Goodshirt
  • Goodnight Nurse

H

  • Head Like A Hole
  • Headless Chickens
  • Hello Sailor
  • Herbs
  • Hieronymus Bosch
  • Human Instinct
  • Human
  • Hayley Westenra
  • House of Shem

I

  • In Dread Response
  • Ivy Lies

J

  • Jakob (band)
  • J Williams
  • Jamie McDell

K

  • Katchafire
  • Kids of 88
  • Kidz in Space
  • Kimbra
  • Kimo
  • Knightshade
  • Knobz, The
  • Kora
  • K One
  • Kerretta

L

  • Luger Boa
  • Like A Storm
  • Ladi6
  • Ladyhawke
  • Lorde

M

  • Mistaken Identity
  • Mi-Sex
  • Mint Chicks, The
  • Midnight Youth
  • Minuit
  • Mockers, The
  • Motocade
  • Mt Eden
  • Mumsdollar
  • Mutton Birds, The
  • Mothra

N

  • Naked and Famous, The
  • Netherworld Dancing Toys
  • Nesian Mystik
  • Nullifier

O

  • Odyssey
  • Opshop
  • OMC
  • Opensouls

P

  • Payola
  • Parachute Band
  • Phoenix Foundation, The
  • Picture This
  • Pluto

R

  • Rapture Ruckus
  • Rabble, The
  • Renderers, the
  • Rhian Sheehan
  • Ruby Suns, The
  • Ruby Frost

S

  • Salmonella Dub
  • Savage
  • Shapeshifter
  • Shihad
  • Shocking Pinks
  • Sinate
  • Six60
  • Spacifix
  • Split Enz
  • Stellar*
  • Steriogram
  • Strawpeople
  • Suburban Reptiles
  • Surf City
  • Supergroove
  • Smashproof
  • Straitjacket Fits
  • Screaming Meemees
  • Swingers, The
  • Stan Walker

T

  • Tadpole
  • Tahuna Breaks
  • Tall Dwarfs
  • Toy Love
  • Tutts, The
  • Trinity Roots
  • Th’ Dudes
  • The Stereo Bus

U

  • Ulcerate

V

  • Veils, The
  • Verlaines, The
  • Villainy

W

  • Warratahs, The
  • WBC, The
  • When the Cat’s Away
  • Working With Walt
  • Wreck Small Speakers On Expensive Stereos

X

Y

Z

  • Zed
  • Zowie
February 17, 2014 / by / in
Moriori people

Moriori are the indigenous people of the Chatham Islands (Rēkohu in Moriori, Wharekauri in Māori), east of the New Zealand archipelago in the Pacific Ocean. These people lived by a code of non-violence and passive resistance (see Nunuku-whenua), which made it easier for Taranaki Māori invaders to nearly exterminate them in the 1830s.

280px-Chatham_Islands_from_space_ISS005-E-15265

The Chatham Islands from space. Chatham Island is the largest, Pitt Island is the second largest, and South East Island is the small island to the right of Pitt

During the early 20th century it was commonly, but erroneously, believed that the Moriori were pre-Māori settlers of New Zealand, linguistically and genetically different from the Māori, and possibly Melanesian. This story, incorporated into Stephenson Percy Smith’s “Great Fleet” hypothesis, was widely believed during the early 20th century. However the hypothesis was not always accepted.[1]

By the late 20th century the hypothesis that the Moriori were different from the Māori had fallen out of favour amongst archeologists, who believed that the Moriori were Māori who settled on the Chatham Islands in the 16th century. The earlier hypothesis was discredited in the 1960s and 1970s.

Traditions tell us that the founding ancestor of Moriori, Rongomaiwhenua, came from eastern Polynesia and his younger brother Rongomaitere sailed on to Aotea (thought to be Aotearoa). Hence there was a period of voyaging between Aotearoa and Rekohu which explains the hokopapa/whakapapa links between Moriori and mainland Maori tribes but our tuakana (elder line) stems directly from Rongomaiwhenua.

All Moriori today trace our ancestry back to Rongomaiwhenua. What distinguished Moriori was their adherence to a covenant of peace which they observed for over 500 years and remains a beacon of hope for our people today.

Origin

The Moriori are culturally Polynesian. They developed a distinct Moriori culture in the Chatham Islands as they adapted to local conditions. Although speculation once suggested that they settled the Chatham Islands directly from the tropical Polynesian islands, or even that they were Melanesian in origin, current research indicates that ancestral Moriori were Māori Polynesians who emigrated to the Chatham Islands from New Zealand before 1500.[4] [5] [6] [7]

Moroiri1

Moriori group C1873 Photograph courtesy of Canterbury Museum

Evidence supporting this theory comes from the characteristics that the Moriori language has in common with the dialect of Māori spoken by the Ngāi Tahu tribe of the South Island, and comparisons of the genealogies of Moriori (“hokopapa”) and Māori (“whakapapa”). Prevailing wind patterns in the southern Pacific add to the speculation that the Chatham Islands were the last part of the Pacific to be settled during the period of Polynesian discovery and colonisation.[4][7] The word Morioriderives from Proto-Polynesian *ma(a)qoli, which has the reconstructed meaning “true, real, genuine”. It is cognate with the Māori language word Māori[8] and likely also had the meaning “(ordinary) people”.

The earliest indication of human occupation of the Chathams, inferred from middens exposed due to erosion of sand dunes, has been established as 450 yearsBP.[9]

Adapting to local conditions

Moriori tree carving or dendroglyph

Moriori tree carving or dendroglyph

The Chathams are colder and less hospitable than the land the original settlers had left behind, and although abundant in resources, these were different from those available where they had come from. The Chathams proved unsuitable for the cultivation of most crops known to Polynesians, and the Moriori adopted a hunter-gatherer lifestyle. Food was almost entirely marine-sourced – protein and fat from fish, fur seals and the fatty young of sea birds. The islands supported about 2000 people.

Lacking resources of cultural significance such as greenstone and plentiful timber, they found outlets for their ritual needs in the carving of dendroglyphs (incisions into tree trunks, called rakau momori). Some of these carvings are protected by the J M Barker (Hapupu) National Historic Reserve.

As a small and precarious population, Moriori embraced a pacifist culture that rigidly avoided warfare, substituting it with dispute resolution in the form of ritual fighting and conciliation. The ban on warfare and cannibalism is attributed to their ancestor Nunuku-whenua.

…because men get angry and during such anger feel the will to strike, that so they may, but only with a rod the thickness of a thumb, and one stretch of the arms length, and thrash away, but that on an abrasion of the hide, or first sign of blood, all should consider honour satisfied.

— Oral tradition, from King 2000

This enabled the Moriori to preserve what limited resources they had in their harsh climate, avoiding waste through warfare, such as may have led to catastrophic habitat destruction and population decline on Easter Island. However, when considered as a moral imperative rather than a pragmatic response to circumstances, it also led to their later near-destruction at the hands of invading North Island Māori.

Moriori castrated some male infants in order to control the population growth.[10]

 

European contact

William R. Broughton landed on 29 November 1791, and claimed possession of the islands for Great Britain, naming them after his ship, HMS ChathamSealers andwhalers soon made the islands a centre of their activities, competing for resources with the native population. The population was estimated at about 1,600 in the mid-1830s with about 10% and 20% of the population having died from infectious diseases such as influenza since the arrival of sealers, ex convicts and Māori from about 1810. The effects of influenza were made more serious by the habit, also common to the Māori, of immersion in cold water. The men intermarried with Moriori. Māori arrivals created their own village at Wharekauri which became the Māori name for the Chatham Islands.[11] Some sealing ships came to the Chathams but captains kept this secret so other ship owners would not find out about the large fur seal population.

Invasion by Taranaki Māori

Taranaki Māori living at Port Nicolson (modern Wellington) had been meeting for some time to decide on a place to invade. A mass invasion of Samoa or Norfolk Island was considered at a meeting in early 1835 but an invasion of the Chathams was decided on as it was so close and the invaders had details of the Moriori pacifist attitudes from Māori who had visited and returned to New Zealand. In 1835 some Ngāti Mutunga and Ngāti Tama people, Māori from the Taranakiregion of the North Island of New Zealand, but living in Wellington, invaded the Chathams. On 19 November 1835, the brig Lord Rodney, a hijacked[12] European ship, arrived carrying 500 Māori armed with guns, clubs and axes, and loaded with 78 tonnes of seed potatoes, followed by another ship with 400 more Māori on 5 December 1835. While the second shipment of invaders were waiting, the invaders killed a 12-year-old girl and hung her flesh on posts.[13] They proceeded to enslave some Moriori and kill and cannibalise others. “Parties of warriors armed with muskets, clubs and tomahawks, led by their chiefs, walked through Moriori tribal territories and settlements without warning, permission or greeting. If the districts were wanted by the invaders, they curtly informed the inhabitants that their land had been taken and the Moriori living there were now vassals.”[14]

hui or council of Moriori elders was convened at the settlement called Te Awapatiki. Despite knowing of the Māori predilection for killing and eating the conquered, and despite the admonition by some of the elder chiefs that the principle of Nunuku was not appropriate now, two chiefs — Tapata and Torea — declared that “the law of Nunuku was not a strategy for survival, to be varied as conditions changed; it was a moral imperative.”[15] A Moriori survivor recalled : “[The Maori] commenced to kill us like sheep…. [We] were terrified, fled to the bush, concealed ourselves in holes underground, and in any place to escape our enemies. It was of no avail; we were discovered and killed – men, women and children indiscriminately.” A Māori conqueror explained, “We took possession… in accordance with our customs and we caught all the people. Not one escaped…..” [16] The invaders ritually killed some 10% of the population, a ritual that included staking out women and children on the beach and leaving them to die in great pain over several days. The Māori invaders forbade the speaking of the Moriori language. They forced Moriori to desecrate their sacred sites by urinating and defecating on them.[17]

After the invasion, Moriori were forbidden to marry Moriori, or to have children with each other. All became slaves of the Ngati Tama and Ngati Mutunga invaders. Many Moriori women had children by their Māori masters. A small number of Moriori women eventually married either Māori or European men. Some were taken from the Chathams and never returned. In 1842 a small party of Māori and their Moriori slaves migrated to the subantarctic Auckland Islands, surviving for some 20 years on sealing and flax growing.[18] Only 101 Moriori out of a population of about 2,000 were left alive by 1862.[19] Although the last Moriori of unmixed ancestry, Tommy Solomon,[20] died in 1933 there are several thousand mixed ancestry Moriori alive today.

An all-male group of German Moravian missionaries arrived in 1843.[21] When a group of women were sent out to join them three years later, several marriages ensued; a few members of the present-day population can trace their ancestry back to those missionary families.

The Moriori and their invasion by the Māori are described in depth by David Mitchell in his popular novel Cloud Atlas later made into a major motion picture by the Wachowski Siblings.

Revival of culture

Today, in spite of the difficulties and genocide that Moriori faced, Moriori culture is enjoying a renaissance, both on Rekohu and in the mainland of New Zealand. Moriori culture and identity is being revived, symbolised in January 2005 with the renewal of the Covenant of Peace at the new Kopinga marae[22] on the Chathams.

Some Moriori descendants have made claims against the New Zealand government through the Waitangi Tribunal, a commission of inquiry charged with making recommendations on claims brought by Māori relating to actions or omissions of the Crown in the period since 1840, which breach the promises made in the Treaty of Waitangi.

The Moriori in New Zealand

Based on writing of Percy Smith and Elsdon Best, there grew theories that the Māori had displaced a more primitive pre-Māori population of Moriori (sometimes described as a small-statured, dark-skinned race of possible Melanesian origin), in mainland New Zealand – and that the Chatham Island Moriori were the last remnant of this earlier race. These theories also had the advantage – from a European settler view – of undermining the notion of the Māori as the indigenous people of New Zealand, making them just one in a neat progression of waves of migration and conquest by increasingly more civilised and technically able peoples. This in turn was used to justify racist stereotyping, colonisation and conquest by cultural “superiors”.[23][24]

These theories were widely published in the early twentieth century,[25] and crucially, this story was promoted in a series of three articles in the School Journal of 1916,[26] and the 1934 A. W. Reed’s schoolbook The Coming of the Maori to Ao-tea-roa [26] —and therefore became familiar to generations of schoolchildren.

A number of historians, anthropologists and ethnologists, however, examined and rejected the hypothesis of a racially distinct pre-Māori Moriori people. Among them, anthropologist H.D. Skinner in 1923,[27] ethnologist Roger Duff in the 1940s,[28] and historian and ethnographer Arthur Thomson in 1959,[29] as did Michael King’sMoriori: A People Rediscovered in 2000 and James Belich[30] and K.R. Howe in Te Ara.[28]

See also

  • Waitaha—A Māori iwi who settled early in the South Island, and were subsequently absorbed by Kāti Mamoe and Ngāi Tahu.

References

  • see 1904 paper by A. Shand on The Early History of the Morioris
  • Campbell, Matthew (2008). “The historical archaeology of New Zealand’s prehistory”. In O’Connor, Sue; Clark, Geoffrey; Leach, Foss. Islands of Inquiry: Colonisation, seafaring and the archaeology of maritime landscapes. Terra Australis 29. Canberra: ANU E Press, Australian National University. ISBN 978-1-921313-90-5
  • As Kerry Howe put it, ‘Scholarship over the past 40 years has radically revised the model offered a century earlier by Smith: the Moriori as a pre-Polynesian people have gone (the term Moriori is now a technical term referring to those ancestral Māori who settled the Chatham Islands)’ (Howe 2003:182).
  • ^ Jump up to: a b Clark, Ross (1994). “Moriori and Maori: The Linguistic Evidence”. In Sutton, Douglas G. The Origins of the First New Zealanders. Auckland: Auckland University Press. pp. 123–135.
  • Solomon, Māui; Denise Davis (updated 2-Sep-11). “Moriori”. Te Ara – the Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 2012-05-04.
  • Howe, Kerry R. (updated 24-Sep-11). “Ideas of Māori origins”. Te Ara – the Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 2012-05-04.
  • King, Michael (2000 (Original edition 1989)). Moriori: A People Rediscovered. Viking. ISBN 0-14-010391-0.
  • Polynesian Lexicon Project Online, entry *maqoli
  • McFadgen, B. G. (March 1994). “Archaeology and Holocene sand dune stratigraphy on Chatham Island”. Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand 24 (1): 17–44. doi:10.1080/03014223.1994.9517454.
  • “The Encyclopedia of New Zealand”.
  • King, M. Moriori. Penguin, 2000
  • King, M. The Silence Beyond. Penguin, 2011; p. 190.
  • Michael King (2000). Moriori: a People Rediscovered; revised ed. Published by Viking. ISBN 0-14-010391-0. Original edition 1989; pp. 57-58.
  • King (2000), pp. 59-60
  • King (2000).
  • Diamond, Jared (1997). Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies. New York: W. W. Norton. p. 53.
  • King, M. The Silence Beyond. Penguin, 2011 ISBN 9780143565567; p. 190.
  • Murihiku timeline (Abandoned website) Backup copy at the Wayback Machine.
  • Kopel et al., 2003.
  • Tommy Solomon
  • “German Missions” (PDF). Reference Guides – Missionary Sources. Hocken Collections. 2008. p. 10. Retrieved 2008-12-09.
  • Berry, Ruth (22 January 2005). “Chathams embrace peace ethic”. The New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 26 October 2011.
  • See Te Ara Encyclopaedia of New Zealand: Ideas of Māori origins
  • “According to the myth, the Maori, as a superior and more warlike people, expropriated the land from the Moriori. Therefore Pakeha expropriation of the same land on the basis of their superior civilisation was in accordance with the principle of the survival of the fittest. For this reason the false myth of the Moriori has been one of New Zealand’s most enduring myths.”, “Ka Whatwhai Tonu Matou: Struggle Without End”, Ranginui Walker, Penguin, Auckland, 1990
  • For example The Cyclopedia of New Zealand of 1902
  • “Imagining Moriori: A history of ideas of a people in the twentieth century”, Jacinta Blank, MA Thesis
  • Skinner, H.D., The Morioris of the Chatham Islands, Honolulu, 1923
  • K. R. Howe. ‘Ideas of Māori origins, Te Ara – the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, updated 28 October 2008
  • Thomson, Arthur, The Story of New Zealand, Past and Present, Savage and Civilized, 2 vols, London, 1859, i, 61
  • Belich, James, Making Peoples: A History of the New Zealanders, from Polynesian Settlement to the End of the Nineteenth Century, University of Hawaii Press, 2002, pp.26, 65-6

Credit: Wikipedia

February 7, 2014 / by / in
Ahuwhenua – Māori land and agriculture

Aruhe (fern root) is prepared at a kāinga (village) in the Bay of Islands. Aruhe was cooked and then beaten with a patu aruhe (fern root beater) to remove the hard outer skin. Before the introduction of potatoes, aruhe was a vital source of carbohydrate in many areas.

Early diet

Aruhe (fern root) is prepared at a kāinga (village) in the Bay of Islands. Aruhe was cooked and then beaten with a patu aruhe (fern root beater) to remove the hard outer skin. Before the introduction of potatoes, aruhe was a vital source of carbohydrate in many areas.Before Europeans arrived in New Zealand Māori had a staple diet of seafood and birds for protein, and aruhe (fern root) and cultivated imported crops. These crops, carried across the Pacific by their ancestors, were kūmara (sweet potato), taro, hue (bottle gourd) and uwhi (yam). The knowledge gained by Māori growing and storing these tropical crops in Aotearoa’s cooler climate gave them gardening skills that enabled them to move rapidly from subsistence gardening to commercial agriculture.

Potatoes, pigs and peas

When new domesticated animals, crops and iron tools arrived in New Zealand in the late 1700s and early 1800s Māori quickly adopted them, and the shift to intensive horticulture and pastoral agriculture began.

When James Cook arrived in New Zealand in 1769 he gave (or traded) cabbage, turnips and potatoes to Ngāti Porou in Ūawa (Tolaga Bay). In the same year the French explorer Jean François Marie de Surville brought wheat, rice and peas to Doubtless Bay. Four years later, on Cook’s second voyage in 1773, he visited Ūawa again and dropped off pigs and potatoes. From 1803, Māori were reported trading in potatoes, pigs, maize and other foodstuffs.

The plough and Christianity

Māori traditionally used kō and timo (digging and grubbing tools) to prepare ground for planting crops. While effective on small garden plots they were labour intensive on large areas of land.

In 1814 the missionary Samuel Marsden introduced horses and cattle. Missionary John Butler introduced the plough in 1820. These new domesticated animals and iron tools eased the workload for land preparation.

Māori who travelled overseas could learn about different farming methods. When Ngāpuhi leader Ruatara returned from overseas he took an active role in the adoption of European farming methods within his tribe.

Wheat growing and shipping

The rise of Māori agriculture was rapid between 1830 and the 1850s. Most of the coastal shipping in the North Island was under Māori ownership, and a large proportion of the food sold locally and exported to Australia was grown by Māori. By the 1850s wheat growing had become widespread throughout the North Island and Māori were building dam- or water-operated flour mills throughout the country. Between 1846 and 1860, 37 flour mills were built for Māori owners in the Auckland province alone.

Reliance on Māori

Expanding Māori agriculture in the mid-1800s played its part in the emergence of New Zealand as a leading agricultural nation. New Zealand’s population of European settlers began to increase rapidly during this period. Initially settlers, unfamiliar with local soils and climate, were reliant on Māori for food supplies. In 1842 Bishop G. A. Selwyn noted that Nelson settlers were completely dependent on the local tribe for food. The success of Māori as agriculturalists at this time was noted.

Large-scale operation

William Swainson described Māori farming activity among Te Arawa, Tūwharetoa and Mataatua iwi in 1859. He noted thousands of acres in wheat, potatoes, maize and kūmara (sweet potato); thousands of pigs, and hundreds of horses and cattle, plus flour mills and ‘43 small coastal vessels, averaging nearly 20 tons each, and upwards of 900 canoes’. 1

Success and demise of Māori farming

Within 30 years of the arrival of the plough Māori had moved rapidly from subsistence gardening to highly successful commercial farming. In 1856 the New Zealander described Māori as ‘landlords, farmers, graziers, seamen, ship owners, labourers and artisans’.2

By the late 1850s the majority of land throughout the North Island was still owned by Māori. But this began to change dramatically as the settler government enforced individualisation of land titles, and large areas of Māori land were confiscated during the 1860s.

January 15, 2014 / by / in
100 Māori words every New Zealander should know

The marae

  • Hui a meeting of any kind, conference, gathering
  • Marae the area for formal discourse in front of a meeting house or applied to a whole marae complex, including meeting house, dining hall, forecourt, etc.
  • Haere mai! Welcome! Enter!
  • Nau mai! Welcome!
  • Tangihanga funeral ceremonies, when body is mourned on a marae
  • Tangi short (verbal version) for the above (gerund) or to cry, to mourn
  • Karanga the ceremony of calling to the guests to welcome them to enter the marae
  • Manuhiri guests, visitors
  • Tangata whenua original people belonging to a place, local people, hosts
  • Whaikōrero the art and practise of speech making
  • Kaikōrero or kaiwhai kōrero speaker (there are many other terms)
  • Haka chant with dance for the purpose of challenge; (see other references to haka on this site)
  • Waiata song or chant which follows speech
  • Koha gift, present (usually money, can be food or precious items, given by guest to hosts)
  • Whare nui meeting house; in writing this is sometimes run together as one word – wharenui
  • Whare whakairo carved meeting house
  • Whare kai dining hall
  • Whare paku lavatory, toilet
  • Whare horoi ablution block, bathroom

Concepts

  • Aroha compassion, tenderness, sustaining love
  • Ihi power, authority, essential force
  • Mana authority, power; secondary meaning: reputation, influence
  • Manaakitanga respect for hosts or kindness to guests, to entertain, to look after
  • Mauri hidden essential life force or a symbol of this
  • Noa safe from tapu (see below), non-sacred, not tabooed
  • Raupatu confiscate, take by force
  • Rohe boundary, a territory (either geographical or spiritual) of an iwi or hapū
  • Taihoa to delay, to wait, to hold off to allow maturation of plans, etc.
  • Tapu sacred, not to be touched, to be avoided because sacred, taboo
  • Tiaki to care for, look after, guard (kaitiaki – guardian, trustee)
  • Taonga treasured possessions or cultural items, anything precious
  • Tino rangatiratanga the highest possible independent chiefly authority, paramount authority, sometimes used for sovereignty
  • Tūrangawaewae a place to stand, a place to belong to, a seat or location of identity
  • Wehi to be held in awe
  • Whakapapa genealogy, to recite genealogy, to establish kin connections
  • Whenua land, homeland, country; also afterbirth, placenta

People and their groups

  • Ariki person of high inherited rank from senior lines of descent, male or female
  • Hapū clan, tribe, independent section of a people; modern usage – sub-tribe; pregnant
  • Iwi people, nation; modern usage – tribe; bones
  • Kaumātua elder or elders, senior people in a kin group
  • Ngāi Tātou a way of referring to everyone present – we all
  • Pākehā this word is not an insult; its derivation is obscure; it is the Māori word for people living in New Zealand of British/European origin; originally it would not have included, for example, Dalmatians, Italians, Greeks, Indians, Chinese, etc.
  • Rangatira person of chiefly rank, boss, owner
  • Tama son, young man, youth
  • Tamāhine daughter
  • Tamaiti one child
  • Tamariki children
  • Tāne man, husband, men, husbands
  • Teina/taina junior relative, younger brother of a brother, younger sister of a sister
  • Tipuna/tupuna ancestor
  • Tuahine sister of a man
  • Tuakana senior relative, older brother of a brother, older sister of a sister
  • Tungāne brother of a sister
  • Wahine woman, wife (wāhine women, wives)
  • Waka canoe, canoe group (all the iwi and hapū descended from the crew of a founding waka)
  • Whāngai fostered or adopted child, young person
  • Whānau extended or non-nuclear family; to be born
  • Whanaunga kin, relatives

Components of place names

Ordinary geographical features such as hills, rivers, cliffs, streams, mountains, the coast and adjectives describing them, such as small, big, little and long, are to be found in many place names. Here is a list so you can recognise them:

  • Au current
  • Awa river
  • Iti small, little
  • Kai one of the meanings of kai is food; in a place name it signifies a place where a particular food source was plentiful, e.g., Kaikōura, the place where crayfish (kōura) abounded and were eaten
  • Mānia plain
  • Manga stream
  • Maunga mountain
  • Moana sea, or large inland ‘sea’, e.g., Taupō
  • Motu island
  • Nui large, big
  • Ō or o means ‘of’ (so does a, ā); many names begin with Ō, meaning the place of so-and-so, e.g., Ōkahukura, Ōkiwi, Ōhau, etc.
  • One sand, earth
  • Pae ridge, range
  • Papa flat
  • Poto short
  • Puke hill
  • Roa long
  • Roto lake; inside
  • Tai coast, tide
  • Wai water
  • Whanga harbour, bay

Greetings

Body parts

  • Arero tongue
  • Ihu nose
  • Kakī neck
  • Kauae, kauwae chin
  • Kōpū womb
  • Māhunga also ‘Makawe’, hair (when used for hair must always be used in plural, indicated by ngā [the, plural]), head.
  • Manawa heart
  • Niho teeth
  • Poho chest (also called uma)
  • Puku belly, stomach
  • Raho testicles
  • Ringa hand, arm
  • Toto blood
  • Tou anus
  • Turi knee (also known as pona)
  • Tūtae excrement, ordure
  • ū breast (breast-milk is wai-ū)
  • Upoko head
  • Ure penis
  • Waewae foot, feet, leg, legs

See also: 365 useful Māori words and phrases

A note on pronunciation

The following English equivalents are a rough guide to pronouncing vowels in Māori:

  • a as in far
  • e as in desk and the first ‘e’ in where; it should be short and sharp
  • i as in fee, me, see
  • o as in awe (not ‘oh!’)
  • u as in sue, boot

There are fewer consonants, and only a few are different from English:

  • r should not be rolled. It is pronounced quite close to the sound of ‘l’ in English. The tongue is near the front of the mouth.
  • t is pronounced more like ‘d’ than ‘t’, with the tip of the tongue slightly further back from the teeth
  • wh counts as a consonant; the standard modern pronunciation is close to the ‘f’ sound; in some districts it is more like an ‘h’; in others more like a ‘w’ without the ‘h’; in others again more like the old aspirated English pronunciation of ‘wh’ (huence for whence)
  • ng counts as one consonant and is pronounced like the ‘ng’ in the word ‘singer’. It isnot pronounced like the ‘ng’ in ‘finger’, i.e., Whāngārei is pronounced Far-n(g)ah-ray (not Fong-gah-ray); Tauranga is pronounced Tow- (to rhyme with sew) rah-n(g)ah (not Tow-rang-gah).

The macron – a little line above some vowels – indicates vowel length. Some words that look the same have different meanings according to their vowel length. For example, anā means ‘here is’ or ‘behold’: Anā te tangata! (Here is the man!) But ana, with no macron, means a cave. Some writers of modern Māori double the vowel instead of using macrons when indicating a long vowel, so the first example would be Anaa te tangata!

Using te reo in email (and snail mail)

We have put together this guide to help people learn appropriate email greetings and sign-offs in te reo Māori.

We have listed some of the most commonly used phrases below. We encourage you to add any others you have received or any other questions you have as community contributions below this post, or email us at info@nzhistory.net.nz.

Generic greetings suitable for most occasions

  • Formal for one person (eg where in English you might have used ‘Dear’): Tēnā koe
  • Informal: Kia ora

When addressing two people

  • Formal: Tēnā kōrua
  • Informal: Kia ora kōrua

When addressing more than two people

  • Formal: Tēnā koutou
  • Informal: Kia ora koutou

Generic sign offs suitable for most occasions

Formal:

  • Nāku (noa), nā  [your name] = yours sincerely [your name]  from one person
  • Nā māua (noa), nā  [your names] = yours sincerely [your names] – from two people
  • Nā mātou (noa), nā  [your names or group name] = yours sincerely [your names or group name] – from more than two people

Adding ‘noa’ in the above examples adds a sense of humility – eg ‘Nāku, nā’ is ‘From [your name]’  whereas ‘Nāku noa, nā is more like ‘It’s just [your name]’

Informal:

  •  Hei konā mai (or just Hei konā)

Other greetings and signoffs

Please provide more examples from emails you have received as community contributions at the bottom of this page or email us at info@nzhistory.net.nz

  • If morning, an informal greeting could be: Mōrena (good morning – an alternative is ‘Ata mārie’ )
  • Kia ora e hoa (informal greeting to a friend)
  • If someone greets you with: Tēnā koutou e hoa mā

    An appropriate response would be: Tēnā koe, e hoa (or, less formally, Kia ora e hoa).

  • The sign off: Noho ora mai rā, nā … is: Look after yourself, from …

For Christmas:

  • Meri Kirihimete – Merry Christmas
  • Ngā mihi o te Kirihimete me te Tau Hou – Seasons greetings for Christmas and the New Year.
  • Meri Kirihimete ki a koe/kōrua/koutou – Merry Christmas to you (1 person) / you (2 people) / you (3 or more people).
  • Ngā mihi o te Kirihimete ki a koe/kōrua/koutou – Greetings of the Christmas season to you  (1 person) / you (2 people) / you (3 or more people).

Credit:

nzhistory.net.nz

September 15, 2013 / by / in