Commerce

List of New Zealand exchange-traded funds

An exchange-traded fund is a financial product traded on a stock exchange whose underlying assets are matched against an index (such as the S&P 500), rather than a trading company. There are five exchange-traded funds listed on the New Zealand Exchange, all sold under the SmartShares brand:

Name Index Expense Ratio
SmartTENZ NZX 10 Up to 0.60%
SmartMIDZ NZX MidCap Up to 0.75%
SmartFONZ NZX 50 Up to 0.90%
SmartMOZY S&P/ASX MidCap 50 Up to 0.90%
SmartOZZY S&P/ASX 20 Up to 0.60%
February 20, 2014 / by / in
List of free-to-air channels in New Zealand

New Zealand broadcast channels

Notes
  • High-definition 1080i is only free-to-air on terrestrial DVB 64-QAM and only available for the first three channels. All other TV channels are standard-definition 576i anamorphic widescreen.
  • IPTV resolution is generally better than 576i due to not being scaled to an anamorphic widescreen width of 720, but may be lower depending on the bandwidth selected or calculated at the time of connection. Playback performance may vary with network traffic conditions. Most metropolitan New Zealanders close to exchanges have access via ADSL2+ withADSL further out, while both VDSL and optical fiber connections are still rare due to slow roll-out, rental property restrictions and/or higher monthly rental.
  • Metro means Kordia owned sites only in Auckland, Hamilton, Tauranga, Napier/Hastings, Palmerston North, the Wellington metropolitan area (including Kapiti), Christchurch and Dunedin.
  • The PAL-B&G (analogue) television switch off was completed on 1 December 2013. AM and FM radio is unaffected.
  • A grey box in the PAL-B&G column means the area(s) where the channel broadcasts has completed digital television transition.
  • A grey box in the 64-QAM column means the channel(s) is temporarily off-air.
  • DVB 64-QAM terrestrial channels use ITU system G channel allocations within UHF television band IV and band V. On 1 December 2013, Band V above 698 MHz was reallocated to LTE mobile telephony, hence some channels that were broadcasting on Band V above 698 MHz on 30 November 2013 have been forced off air until a new frequency is allocated.
  • All New Zealand operated direct-broadcast satellite channels are from Optus D1 at 160.0°E, and can be received via a standard 60 cm parabolic antenna. There are two main up-links – the original one from Sky in Auckland, on transports 3 @ 12519 MHz, 5 @ 12644 MHz or 6 @ 12671 MHz and the one from TVNZ’s Avalon comm hub in Lower Hutt, with channels broadcast on either Freeview transport 21 @ 12456 MHz or 22 @ 12483 MHz.
Name Owner Launch Description Availability
Terrestrial Satellite DVB IPTV
PAL-B&G/FM/AM DVB 64-QAM AvalonFTA Sky FTA
Freeview high priority/bit rate nationwide channels
TV ONE TVNZ (govt.) 1 Jun 1960 New Zealand’s first television channel. Started as four channels (AKTV2, WNTV1, CHTV3, DNTV2) and amalgamated into one channel (NZBC TV) in October 1973. Renamed TV One on 1 April 1975. ended 1 Dec 2013 1080i 576i No primetime/sports

on-demand SD

TV2 1 Jun 1975 Youth focused channel, named South Pacific Television from 1976 to 1980. ended 1 Dec 2013 1080i 576i 576i primetime/cartoons

on-demand SD

TV3 MediaWorks NZ(corp.) 26 Nov 1989 Started off as NZ’s first private TV network, sold off to Canadian and, later, Australian interests. Currently in receivership ended 1 Dec 2013 1080i 576i 576i primetime

on-demand SD

FOUR 1997 Youth focused channel launched as 4 in 1997, became music videoC4 in 2003, reverted in 2008, renamed to FOUR in 2011. ended 1 Dec 2013 Yes Yes No primetime

on-demand

Māori Television Māori Television Service (govt.) 28 Mar 2004 Government funded content in Māori and English ended 1 Dec 2013 Yes Yes No primetime

on-demand

TV One Plus 1 TVNZ (govt.) 1 Jul 2012 TV One hour delayed replaced TVNZ 7 No Yes Yes Yes on-demand
TV2 +1 1 Sep 2013 TV2 hour delayed, replaced TVNZ U[1] No Yes Yes Yes on-demand
TV3 Plus 1 MediaWorks NZ(corp.) 30 Mar 2009 TV3 hour delayed No Yes Yes No on-demand
C4 20 May 2010 Music videos started in 2010 called C4 2 as digital only jukebox version of FOUR’s previous C4 channel. No Yes No Yes No
Prime SKY Network Television(corp.) 30 Aug 1998 Started off as an Australian-owned network of regional stations before being sold to Sky TV in 2006 ended 1 Dec 2013 Yes changed frequency Yes primetime

pay TV only

Trackside New Zealand Racing Board(govt.) 1992 Horse and dog racing ended 2012 until 14 April 2014 No until 14 April 2014 No
ChoiceTV Top TV Limited 28 Apr 2012 Mainly life style content with some other entertainment. No Yes Yes No limited

on-demand

Sommet Sports 18 Jul 2013 Lower cost sporting coverage No Yes No No No
The Shopping Channel The Shopping Channel Ltd. 1 Oct 2012 24 hour product demonstrations No Yes No No live unicast
Al Jazeera Al Jazeera Media Network 25 Oct 2013 Foreign news service No Yes No No live unicast
Freeview low priority/bit rate nationwide channels
TVSN Direct Group Pty Ltd 20 Aug 2013 24 hour product demonstrations from Australian feed with New Zealand details No Kordia Metro

only

No No AU live unicast
Yes Shop KD Media Inc 4 Nov 2013 24 hour product demonstrations No Kordia Metro

only

No No No
Parliament TV Kordia(distributor, govt.) 9 Oct 2007 Live and replayed coverage of the New Zealand parliamentary sessions No Kordia Metro

only

Yes No live unicast
Te Reo Māori Television Service (govt.) 2008 Government funded content in 100% Māori. No Yes Yes No primetime on-demand
Firstlight Firstlight Charitable Trust 17 Sept 2012 Family safe Christian Programming No Yes No No live unicast
CTV8 World TV Ltd(corp.) 13 Aug 2007 Imported Mandarin and Cantonese entertainment and news Auckland ended

1 Dec 2013

Kordia Metro

only

No No No
TV9 1 Feb 2012 Local and international Chinese programming in English No off-air No No No
Shine TV Rhema Broadcasting Group (corp.) 1 Dec 2002 Christian programming No Auckland JDA

only (returns Feb 2014)

Yes No live unicast
CUE Mercury TV Ltd. (corp.) 1996 Mainly distance learning, local news and sport, formerly Mercury Television and later Southland TV. Southlandended

5 May 2013

Southland JDA

only

Yes No No
Freeview Kordia local channels
TV33 Local and international Chinese programming No Auckland No No No
tvCentral Television Media Group Family safe programming Waikato/BOPended

1 Dec 2013

Waikato/BOP No No No
CTV Canterbury Television Allied Press Sep 1991 Regional programming as well as Al Jazeera, DW TV, etc. Christchurchended

28 Apr 2013

Christchurch No No limited

on-demand

39 Dunedin Television Dunedin ended

28 Apr 2013

Dunedin No No No
Freeview JDA local channels
Channel North Television Northland TV Charitable Trust 1 Aug 2008 local community TV, community media development and education Whangareiended

1 Dec 2013

Whangarei No No live unicast
TV Rotorua Television Media Group Family safe programming Rotorua ended

1 Dec 2013

Rotorua No No No
Geyser Television Tourist information Rotorua ended

1 Dec 2013

Rotorua No No No
CTV Canterbury Television Allied Press Sep 1991 Regional programming as well as Al Jazeera, DW TV, etc. Timaru ended

28 Apr 2013

Timaru No No limited

on-demand

East Coast TV East Coast Television Trust Dec 2013 Regional programming No Gisborne No No live unicast
Independent digital local channels
SCTV VTV Group May 2011 Korean Christian programming No Auckland JDA

only (returns Feb 2014)

No No No
SBS Korean movies No Auckland JDA

only (returns Feb 2014)

No No No
YTN Korean news No Auckland JDA

only (returns Feb 2014)

No No No
K-POP Korean music No Auckland JDA

only (returns Feb 2014)

No No No
CNC Chinese state news in English No Auckland JDA

only (returns Feb 2014)

No No No
NHK World Japanese state news in English No Auckland JDA

only (returns Feb 2014)

No No No
Arirang TV Korean state news in English No Auckland JDA

only (returns Feb 2014)

No No No
Television Hawkes Bay Sawyer Television Limited 1994 Tourist information Napier

Hastings ended

30 Sep 2012

Napier

Hastings

only

No No No
Tararua TV Tararua TV Trust Christian and family safe programmes Pahiatua ended

29 Sep 2013

No No No No
Mainland Television Media-7 Rebroadcasts BBC World, Al Jazeera, DW TV, CCTV, VOA and locally produced news Nelson ended

28 Apr 2013

Nelson

only

No No No
45 South TV Broadcasts 98% local content. Community station run by volunteers. Oamaru ended

28 Apr 2013

Oamaru

only

No No No
Other local channels
Juice TV Juicetv.com Ltd 1994 Privately owned music TV channel Aucklandended 2012 No No No No
FaceTV Triangle Community Television Limited 1 Aug 1998 Public service and access programming in various languages Aucklandended

1 Dec 2013

No No No live unicast

ended Nov 2013

Big TV Waikato University Campus station Hamilton ended December 2013 No No No No
Wellspring TV Wellspring TV Ltd 7th Oct 2007 Christian Programming Taupo ended

1 Dec 2013

No No No No
Visitor TV Tourist information (currently off air due to 2011 Christchurch earthquake) Christchurchended

28 Apr 2013

No No No No
VTV (started off as Voice TV and arirang) Broadcasts recorded Asian programmes’ from arirang, SBS and mapTV. Christchurchended

28 Apr 2013

No No No No
Freeview high priority nationwide audio only channels
Radio New Zealand National Radio New Zealand (govt.) 1925 News/talk-back Yes Kordia metro

only

Yes Yes live unicast
Radio New Zealand Concert N/A New Zealand’s only commercial free classical music channel. Yes Kordia metro

only

Yes Yes live unicast
Freeview low priority nationwide audio only channels
George FM MediaWorks NZ(corp.) 1998 Dance music station started off in Auckland only, sold off to Canadian and, later, Australian interests. Yes No Yes No live unicast
Base FM 2008 hip hop music station that split from George FM. Yes Kordia metro

only

No No live unicast

Foreign satellite channels

The following is a list of free-to-air DVB satellite services available in New Zealand. Most New Zealand homes already have a standard 60 cm satellite dish fitted which can pick up most of these channels, as these are also used (ore have been used in the past) to pick up free-to-air and pay New Zealand television channels from Optus D1 (and historically, Optus B1). A frequency scanning (aka blind-scan) capable set-top box can be used to locate other services.

Name Description Frequency @ Pulse rate

LNB IEEE band polarization

Optus D1 for 60 cm dish or greater
9 Network feed for STW backhaul 12383 MHz @ 3.75 MBd

Ku linear vertical

7 Network SNG 1 backhaul 12644 MHz @ 7.2 MBd

Ku linear vertical

7 Network SNG 2 backhaul 12653 MHz @ 7.2 MBd

Ku linear vertical

9 Network SNG 1 backhaul 12407 MHz @ 6.111 MBd

Ku linear vertical

9 Network SNG 2 backhaul 12421 MHz @ 6.111 MBd

Ku linear vertical

9 Network SNG 3 backhaul 12431 MHz @ 6.111 MBd

Ku linear vertical

Southern Cross 10 regional backup 12635 MHz @ 5.1 MBd

Ku linear vertical

Intelsat 19 for 100  cm dish or greater
NHK World News Television 1080i state-owned English service 4060 MHz @ 26.59 MBd

C linear horizontal

576i state-owned English service
Optus D2 for 60 cm dish or greater
Tele Padre Pio Catholic Italian service 12396 MHz @ 22.5 MBd

Ku linear horizontal

Telepace Catholic Italian/English service 12425 MHz @ 22.5 MBd

Ku linear horizontal

Al Hayat Arabic service 12519 MHz @ 22.5 MBd

Ku linear vertical

Supreme Master TV Religious English service
AON Religious English service
channel newsasia state-owned English service 12545 MHz @ 22.5 MBd

Ku linear vertical

Al Iraqiya Arabic service
Salaam Arabic service
3ABN Religious English service
TVRI state-owned Indonesian service 12.608 GHz @ 22.5 MBd

Ku linear horizontal

Kurdistan TV Kurdish service
BVN state-owned Dutch service 12644 MHz @ 22.5 MBd

Ku linear vertical

TRT state-owned Turkish service
JCTV Religious English service
TBN Religious English service
Church TV Religious English service
Smile of a Child Religious English service
God TV Religious English service
Daystar Religious English service
Inspiration Religious English service
EWTN Religious English service
Al Forat Arabic service 12706 MHz @ 22.5 MBd

Ku linear vertical

Press TV English service
CGNTV Religious English service
Hope TV Religious English service
Aghapy TV Religious English service
Russia Today state-owned English service 12734 MHz @ 22.5 MBd

Ku linear vertical

TV3 state-owned Malaysian service
MediaCorp 8i Singaporean-Chinese service
ERT state-owned Greek service
Kurdsat Kurdish service
TVR International Romanian service
Duna Hungarian service
Abu Dhabi TV Arabic service
Oman TV Arabic service
AsiaSat 4 for 90 cm dish or greater
DaAi TV Taiwanese service 12430 MHz @ 20 MBd

Ku linear vertical

Intelsat 19 for 90 cm dish or greater
Arirang state-owned English/Korean service 13557 MHz @ 13.333 MBd

Ku linear horizontal

NSS-9
BYU TV Mormon Multilingual service 4185 MHz @ 6.527 MBd

2m dish or greater

C right hand circular

RFO Wallis & Futuna French service 3922 MHz @ 2.895 MBd

1m dish or greater

C right hand circular

Historical discontinued services
Name Description Frequency @ Pulse rate

LNB IEEE band polarization

Optus D1 for 60 cm dish or greater
Tasmanian SBS One state-owned English/Foreign service 12646 MHz @ 12.6 MBd

Ku linear vertical

Tasmanian SBS Two state-owned English/Foreign service
Tasmanian SBS HD simulcast service
Intelsat 5 for 90 cm dish or greater
BBC World News state-owned English service 4160 MHz @ 26.48 MBd

C linear horizontal

IRQAA Arabic 4.16 GHz @ 26.48 MBd

C linear horizontal

Intelsat 8
Australia Network state-owned English service 4.1 GHz @ 26.48 MBd

180 cm dish or greater

C linear horizontal

MAC TV Taiwanese service 12504 MHz @ 3.073 MBd

90 cm dish or greater

Ku linear vertical

Credit: Wikipedia

February 17, 2014 / by / in
List of banks in Oceania

Australia

Main article: List of banks in Australia
See also: Bank State Branch#List of Bank codes

Central bank

  • Reserve Bank of Australia

Major banks

  • Australia and New Zealand Banking Group Limited (ANZ)
  • Commonwealth Bank
  • HSBC Bank Australia Limited
  • National Australia Bank Limited (NAB)
  • St. George Bank
  • Suncorp
  • Westpac Banking Corporation Limited
  • Citibank

Local banks

  • Adelaide Bank
  • BankSA
  • Bank of Queensland
  • Bank of Western Australia
  • Bendigo Bank
  • Community Bank
  • Elders Rural Bank
  • Macquarie Bank
  • Members Equity Bank

Defunct banks

  • State Bank of Victoria
  • State Bank of South Australia
  • State Bank of New South Wales
  • Advance Bank
  • Bank of Melbourne
  • Challenge Bank

Fiji

Central bank

  • Reserve Bank of Fiji

Local banks

  • ANZ (Fiji)
  • Colonial National Bank
  • Westpac (Fiji)
  • Bank of Baroda
  • Fiji Development Bank
  • National Bank of Fiji (Defunct)

New Zealand

Central bank

  • Reserve Bank of New Zealand

Local banks[edit]

  • ANZ National Bank Limited (ANZ National Bank New Zealand)
  • ASB Bank Limited (owned by the Commonwealth Bank of Australia)
    • BankDirect (subsidiary of ASB Bank)
  • Bank of New Zealand Limited (owned by National Australia Bank)
  • Westpac New Zealand Limited (owned by Westpac Banking Corporation in Australia)
  • Heartland Bank
  • Kiwibank Limited
  • Rabobank New Zealand Limited
  • SBS Bank
  • TSB Bank Limited (Taranaki Savings Bank Limited)

Foreign banks operating in New Zealand

  • ABN AMRO Bank N.V.
  • Citibank, N.A.
  • Commonwealth Bank of Australia
  • Deutsche Bank AG
  • Kookmin Bank
  • Rabobank Nederland
  • The Bank of Tokyo-Mitsubishi UFJ
  • Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation
  • Westpac Banking Corporation

Papua New Guinea

  • Bank of South Pacific

Solomon Islands

  • ANZ Solomon Islands
  • National Bank of Solomon Islands
  • Westpac Solomon Islands
  • Bank of the South Pacific
  • Development Bank of Solomon Islands (defunct)
February 17, 2014 / by / in
Māori land and agriculture – Incorporations and ahuwhenua

A drover takes his sheep along Waihau Beach, heading towards Gisborne, in 1906. From the late 1800s onwards, the Ngāti Porou people of the East Coast became heavily involved in sheep farming. By 1927, sheep numbers on the East Coast were estimated at half a million.

Āpirana Ngata’s influence

Āpirana Ngata played a vital role in the 20th century in developing a national scheme that amalgamated Māori land and provided funding to farm the land. His success was largely due to his experience of farming on the East Coast amongst his Ngāti Porou people, as well as to his knowledge of European law.

Ngāti Porou sheep farming

From around 1900, Āpirana Ngata became deeply interested in sheep farming on the East Coast, as he took over Ahikōuka station, and managed three other stations. Ngāti Porou leaders like Rāpata Wahawaha and Mōkena Kōhere had successfully farmed sheep on open country in the late 1800s, but it became apparent that for sheep farming to be successful a more structured approach was needed.

At around that time Ngāti Porou farmers formed a Union of Ngati Porou Farmers. Ngata capitalised on this, educating Ngāti Porou about contemporary farming methods, including fencing, stock rotation and sowing grass. Ngata’s friend Samuel Williams, founder of Te Aute College, provided finance for Ngāti Porou farmers. Sheep farming underwent a transformation in the Waiapu valley, with Āpirana Ngata leading the way. Sheep numbers increased from 52,786 in 1900, to 65,619 in 1905, to 132,356 in 1909. By 1927 sheep numbers were estimated at 500,000.

Ahuwhenua Trophy

Āpirana Ngata instigated the Māori Farmer of the Year awards in 1932. The winner of the awards received the Ahuwhenua Trophy, presented in 1932 by the governor general, Lord Bledisloe. Over time the difficulty in judging between dairying and sheep farming became clear, and in 1954 Lord Bledisloe presented an additional trophy for sheep farming. Māori women won trophies for sheep farming in 1952 and dairy farming in 1954.

Ngāti Porou dairying

In 1923 Ngata began looking for suitable land for dairy farming on the East Coast. It took some convincing by Ngata to draw Ngāti Porou farmers into dairying as they had been sheep farmers for over 30 years. Money was borrowed from the Native Trustee and used to build a dairy factory, buy cows, build milking sheds and launch the Ngāti Porou Dairy Company. By 1925/26 the Ruatōria factory produced around 60 tonnes of butter. In the 1931/32 season production climbed to almost 460 tonnes. However it did not thrive after the Second World War and closed in 1954.

Large incorporations

Large-scale farming is carried out by a number of big Māori incorporations.

Parininihi Ki Waitōtara Incorporation, based in Taranaki, has 13 dairy farms and milks 8,000 cows on 2,500 hectares of productive farmland. In 2008 the incorporation had a $50 million farming interest in Taranaki, and collected rents from 20,000 hectares of perpetual lease.

The Ātihau-Whanganui Incorporation was formed in 1970 to manage 40,873 hectares of land. In the early 2000s it managed 10 stations and one dairy farm on behalf of its 7,072 shareholders. One of its stations, Pah Hill, a 1,900-hectare sheep and beef farm, supported 20,800 stock units.

Wairarapa Moana Incorporation owned assets of almost $90 million in the early 2000s, a large part being forestry and farming operations. They managed 4,200 hectares of farmland, comprising 12 dairy units and 1,325 hectares of sheep and beef farms. Dairy farms employed sharemilkers to milk around 7,200 cows, producing over 2.3 million kilograms of milk solids annually.

The Puketapu 3A Trust own the Moerangi station with 3,877 hectares, 2,150 hectares of which are effective farming land. In 2008 Moerangi carried 13,200 sheep, about 1,200 cattle, nearly 2,000 deer and 500 goats.

Credit: http://www.teara.govt.nz/

January 15, 2014 / by / in
Māori land and agriculture – Trusts and incorporations

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Ahuwhenua trusts and incorporations are the main method of managing Māori land blocks with multiple owners. This table shows their distribution throughout New Zealand.

Source: Māori Land Court

Ahuwhenua trusts and Māori incorporations

The two key structures developed to manage Māori interests in land were ahuwhenua trusts and Māori incorporations. In 2008 there were 129 Māori incorporations and 5,201 ahuwhenua trusts which together administered around two-thirds of Māori land.

Ahuwhenua trusts are popular because land owners retain their interests as owners. With incorporations, owners become shareholders who receive dividends on their shareholding. More recent legislation allows ahuwhenua trusts to conduct themselves in a more commercial manner if owners wish, and to amend the trust order accordingly.

Corporate farmers

The majority of Māori land is administered by trustees or management committees, unlike the broader New Zealand agricultural sector, which is dominated by owner-operator family farms. Much of Māori agricultural production is carried out by the corporate farmer – landowners do not work on farms but employ others to run them.

Māori agriculture has unique problems relating to ownership, governance and access to capital.

Ownership

The majority of Māori landowners are absentee owners. The physical separation of the owners from their ancestral lands has major effects on the organisations that administer and control the lands.

Most Māori landowners will never occupy the land they collectively own, nor obtain a livelihood from it. But ownership of Māori land plays a major role in cultural identity. Land provides owners with their tūrangawaewae (their place to stand, or sense of belonging). Because such land is precious, owners are often conservative and risk-averse, particularly when there is a chance that land might be placed at risk of being lost. Landowners believe that organisations should place as much importance on their social and cultural objectives as on maintaining commercial viability.

Governance and decision making

Appointments to boards or committees are primarily from within the landowning groups. Owners elect representatives democratically, and the final makeup of committees often reflects the interests of families keen to maintain control of the organisation. If members lack experience at governance and management this can affect the success of trusts and incorporations.

Access to capital

Organisations often struggle to obtain access to capital to develop their landholdings. A conservative, debt-averse approach is often driven by owners’ demands. Because of the complexity of multiple land ownership, lenders are often unwilling to lend with Māori land as security. If managers do not have extensive business experience, it can be harder to get finance to develop land.

Company solutions

Recently, the Māori Land Court has more actively promoted the use of the company structure, under the Companies Act 1993, as a way to separate land ownership from business activities. A company structure can allow the separation of commercial objectives from social and cultural ones, and provide a mechanism for internal checks on performance. The commercial goals of a company can be clearly laid down and management can be assessed. Electing a board of directors – none of whom necessarily need to be owners and who are chosen primarily for their commercial ability – improves lines of accountability.

January 15, 2014 / by / in
Māori land and agriculture – Land ownership and Māori agriculture

Land confiscation

The confiscation of Māori land following wars between some Māori tribes and the government targeted prime agricultural lands, particularly in Taranaki, Waikato and the Bay of Plenty.

Individualisation

The change in Māori land ownership had a huge influence on Māori agriculture in the 19th and 20th centuries. The Native Lands Act 1862 was passed to individualise and register Māori land in a form that was recognisable under English common law – so that it could be readily traded.

Traditional Māori land tenure was communal, carrying obligations to the wider community that were lost under individualisation.

The establishment of the Native Land Court in 1865 (now known as the Māori Land Court) and the introduction of numerous pieces of legislation over the following 50 years, saw vast tracts of Māori land move out of Māori control.

Fragmentation

Communal claims to land through ahi kā (continued occupation) were abolished. Individuals or family groups were now named as owners on land titles, and as each new generation inherited the land (whether they lived there or not) the number of owners increased at a rapid rate. The result was title fragmentation.Owners had no practical means to develop lands.

As the loss of land became widespread, Māori looked for ways to retain land, and to develop structures to manage land more effectively. These structures were needed because Māori owners increasingly owned scattered interests in numerous blocks of land.

Smaller and smaller

In 2008 there were 26,480 Māori land certificates of title with an average size of 59 hectares and an average number of owner interests of 73 per title (up to 425 maximum). Owners can have multiple interests in more than one block of land, resulting in an approximate number of owner-interests of more than two million in 2008 with an annual increase of 185,000 per year with successions.

Solution to fragmentation

One solution to title fragmentation was bringing together interests under a single administrative structure. While possible as early as 1894, widespread adoption of single organisational structures did not take place until 1929 with the introduction of the Maori Land Development Scheme by Ngāti Porou leader and cabinet minister Sir Āpirana Ngata.

This scheme provided government funding to Māori landowners to develop the physical infrastructure of their farms. The potential to develop farms encouraged the amalgamation of land titles into single administrative structures.

In the Maori Affairs Act 1953 the main land management structures established were the section 438 trust, and the Māori land incorporation. Under Te TureWhenua Maori Act, 1993, section 438 trusts became ahuwhenua trusts, while Māori incorporations remained unchanged.

Māori land trusts and incorporations

Around 1.5 million hectares of land in New Zealand is Māori land (around 5% of New Zealand’s total land area). Of this, 750,187 hectares (or 49.5% of Māori land) is administered by ahuwhenua trusts, and 207,157 hectares (or 13.7% of Māori land) is administered by Māori incorporations. Almost all of the incorporations, and a significant proportion of the ahuwhenua trusts, have an interest in agriculture.

The majority of these organisations are reliant on land-based industries including agriculture, horticulture and forestry. In 2007 it was estimated that the asset value of these organisations was around $3.2 billion. This figure does not include the assets of Māori who privately own farms or forests.

Individual farmers

Almost 300,000 hectares or 20% of Māori land is not administered by trusts or incorporations. Landowners who wish to live and work on ancestral land are required under legislation to gain the approval of a majority of the owners. This approval is formalised through the Māori Land Court in the form of a lease. Where the number of owners is small an agreement can be gained relatively easily. However owners can number in the hundreds or thousands, hence the predominance of trusts and incorporations.

Land utilisation

A 1997 survey of 633 Māori incorporations and trusts estimated that 1.21 million hectares of Māori land were being used for agriculture (80% of all Māori land), 0.267 million hectares were in forestry (18%) and the balance of approximately 28,000 hectares was in urban property investments.

Effect on the economy

The Māori contribution to New Zealand’s farming economy is significant. In 2003 it was estimated that the annual agricultural and forestry production from Māori communally owned land assets was approximately $750 million per annum, around 5% of the total. In the early 2000s more than 15% of the country’s sheep and beef exports came from Māori farming interests, and Māori owned around $100 million worth of shares in the huge dairy company Fonterra. Māori were farming 720,000 hectares in 2003 – mainly in sheep, beef and dairy.

Credit: http://www.teara.govt.nz/

January 15, 2014 / by / in